ENTREWIKI is a reference source of knowledge about entrepreneurship in the art schools.

Note: Wiki content is regularly updated

 ENTREWIKI compiles theories, methods, models, approaches and directions from both theory and practice which teachers and educators can use as a resource in their teaching. The wiki can be used by teachers as resources in your teaching, whether you are teaching core academic subjects or a specialised major programme or if you are within an artist development programme (KUA), a dedicated entrepreneurship programme or something altogether different. 

The wiki content is diverse. It also includes so-called hard skills, which apply to starting and running an arts business, such as a mini guide to artist sales tax, an overview of business types in Denmark, and information about contracts and agreements. 

Everything is organized alphabetically and is updated regularly. If you as a teacher feel that anything is missing from ENTRE WIKI, send us an e-mail and we’ll make sure to include the resources you are looking for.

 

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Agreements

As a teacher in one of the arts schools, you will often encounter students who need guidance regarding entering into contracts and agreements. In the CAKI Mini Guide – Contracts, Agreements and Negotiation you will find information and tips on what to be aware of when entering into a written contract. The mini guide also contains an array of templates to use for contracts and written agreements. 

Read more here

Appreciative Inquiry

Appreciative Inquiry is about the process of exploring and discovering what one as an artist or art student would like to have more of. Appreciative Inquiry is based on the idea that change and growth happen best by focusing on and exploring that which already works wellIn other words, in order to discern what it is that works and to develop this. 

Appreciative Inquiry further involves exploring and gaining knowledge about that which the student wishes to have more of. Appreciative Inquiry is originally developed by the American professor D. Cooperrider (Cooperrider et al., 2001). The approach is based on two main pillars. The first is appreciative, in the sense of valuing: confirming the valuable and reinforcing that which gives life and meaning. The second is inquiry, understood as exploration, asking questions, building learning and being open to seeing possibilities.  

 Theorist P. Lang writes, “Behind every problem is a frustrated dream – and the dream came first!” (P. Lang according to Schnoor, 2009, p. 65). Lang encourages us to focus on the dream and follow it on the basic idea that human beings thereby develop more positively and in the direction of a promising vision of the future. This is called the heliotropic principle (Greek: helios = light, trope = growth) (Cooperrider et al., 2001) (M. Schnoor, 2009). 

Appreciative Inquiry’s approach is inquisitive, and the construction of the questions is completely central to determining the answers we receive. Another theorist, Barnett Pearce, is in line with Lang, but sees it from a slightly different angle: “AI (Appreciative Inquiry) contains at its foundation the art in practice of being able to formulate questions which support a system’s ability to understand, anticipate and promote positive potential (…) The questions asked of a human system will lay the groundwork for the direction in which the system will develop.” (Barrett & Fly, 2005, p. 36; in B. Pearce, 2007. More from Pearce, see also the CMM Model in ENTREWIKI). 

Appreciative Inquiry opposes the more traditional examination methods in which examination and intervention are two separate processes. Every examination or learning process is an influence (simultaneity principle). Questions create thoughts, ideas and language which affect for example the student and their perception of reality.  Specific questions focus our attention in certain directions, which is why it becomes important in an appreciative perspective that one as leader or teacher carefully consider what one is examining, and how it can function in the concrete context  

(Haselbo & Lyngaard, 2007 according to Schnoor, 2009).  

4D Model 

[Chosen Area of Development] 

  1. Identify the successful and valuable 
  2. Create a shared vision of the desired future 
  3. Create clarity about the challenges and obtainable future 
  4. Experiment with new actions 

Sources 

Narrative Organizational Development – Forming Shared Meaning and Action, Michala Schnoor, Dansk Psykologisk forlag, 2009, p. 57-70 

Communication and Creation of Social Worlds, W. Barnett Price, Dansk Psykologisk forlag, 2007 

Artistic narrative

(See also the section on the 7P Model elsewhere in the wiki)

For many artists, their personal story and life experiences have a clear impression on the artistic process or the artistic product. For others, the personal story is more of a background for their practice. As a teacher, the 7P Model can be applied as a tool for trying out the student’s own stories or to have a conversation about personal stories. The 7P Model can create a perspective on how an artist can work actively with storytelling and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

The artistic narrative therefore also has an impact on the possibilities the artist has for creating relationships in or speaking about their artistic practice and business, because regardless of whether or not the artist uses their story, it still affects the way we perceive the work and/or artist. With this as a starting point, it will always be relevant for the artist to develop the knowledge of how a narrative practice can develop in the artistic business.

“(…) A story is not just a story. It is in itself a localized action, an expressive performance. It works in the direction of creating, maintaining or changing the world of social relations.”  Social Construction – Entering the Dialogue, 2004, Gergen/Gergen

In the narrative practice, storytelling is experienced as a activity of creating something. It is where members of the organisation or group create the social world through the stories that they tell. In other words, one creates reality in the language one uses, and this reality stays alive and circulates through stories. According to psychologist Harlene Andersen, language has a creating energy:

“‘Language is not innocent!’ Every time we tell a story, we bring forward a special reality while pushing many other possible realities to the background.” Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor

Identity as Social Construct

In the perspective of the narrative, identity is understood more as a relation than as something individual. The word identity implies a social process more than an individual nature: When we identify something, we give it an identity. This is a departure from the traditional cultural perspective that we as humans each have a unique, stable and cohesive “personality” which determines how we think and act. It is more an action that creates something. It is an expression of a person’s position or point of view more than an expression of a truth in itself.

“A person’s success in maintaining a given self-assessment depends on others’ willingness to play out certain pasts in relation to him/her. All of us are ‘woven into’ others’ historical constructions, just as they are in ours.” Gergen/Gergen, 2004

This means that the artist actively works with creating relationships and worlds through storytelling. If one follows the narrative view on identity, it offers a position for the artist in which the artist can adopt a more relational role in which the artist can adopt a more relational role than has traditionally been practiced in the artistic business

Characteristics of a story: The 7 Ps

The 7P Model offers us a language for storytelling. The model can create a perspective on how we can actively work with storytelling, and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

According to M. Schnoor, narrative has a series of characteristics that make up the 7 Ps

  1. Personal perspective: A narrative always has a narrator — it is always someone’s story. Psychologist Jerome Bruner calls this a story’s perspectivism. (Bruner, 1999)
  2. Public: A narrative always has one or several listeners. This is where the narrative’s relational dimension resides. The narrative is shaped by the relation between narrator and public or audience — someone who listens.
  3. Plot: A narrative is made up of a series of single events and actions which are linked together in a particular order in adherence with a plot. A narrative’s plot reveals what the story is about and can also be called “the red thread.”
  4. Punctuation: Narratives allow us to organize our experiences in chronological order. All narratives have a beginning (past), middle (present) and an end (future). It is not always clear which event makes up each of these components of the narrative. We create meaning in our experiences by selecting certain events over others, so something is pulled to the foreground instead of something else. Part of this selection process is what communication theorist Barnett Pearce calls punctuation — determining where the narrative begins and ends.
  5. Personae: A narrative always contains a group of characters who act in relation to each other. These are the personae. Some actors play leading roles while others play supporting ones. Once a character or action is determined by the story’s narrator, it will likely maintain its identity or function throughout the story. An interesting characteristic of narratives is, however, that they create connections between the exceptional and the ordinary (Bruner, 1999). In other words, narratives contribute to creating meaning in actions and behaviors that deviate from the predictable.
  6. Positioning: A story, because of its plot and the discourse from which the story springs, makes available certain positions. These positions help form both identity and room for possible actions.
  7. Point: A story always has a moral or point. The point in a story is the lesson the story wants to bring forward to the audience. The question is, how does one form a story so that others will be likely to want to listen and take an interest in the moral message?

Fig. 7P model: 

Perspective

Public

Plot

Punctuation

Personae

Positioning

Point

The 7P Model (Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor)

Sources:

Text based on Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor

Meaning in Action, 1999, Jerome Bruner

Social Construction – Entering the Dialogue, 2004, Gergen/Gergen

Artist VAT
Artist VAT

Artist VAT can be applied to certain original art works, productions and services. Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. Therefore, you may encounter students who need knowledge about the tax rules that apply to their particular type of artistic business. The rules for tax registration and payroll tax are part of the knowledge one needs when registering a business.

Read more about sales tax, artist tax and payroll tax in CAKI’s Miniguide here.

Artistic Business
Artistic Business

“Artistic Business” is the title of one of the themes in the ENTRE PROGRAM, a program we offer to teachers at art schools. One of the focuses of “Artistic Business” is how to build an artistically and economically sustainable business. Read more about the program here.

Artistic Citizenship

“Artistic Citizenship” is the title of one of the themes in the ENTRE PROGRAM. Read more about the program here.

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Big Data

Big Data

Since the amount of digital data from systems and social media is growing explosively, it may be appropriate to find methods and tools for processing large amounts of data. The term “big data” primarily refers to large amounts of data created by humans and systems. The distinguishing  characteristic of big data is a lack of structure where data comes from many different sources, making it very diverse. Therefore, much analysis is required to process the collected data. There are many different theories, methods, techniques and tools available in the area of big data. Read more here.

Branding and the VCI Model

Branding and the VCI Model

It can be significant for a young artist or teacher of entrepreneurship at an art school to work with the development of the artistic brand, since it is linked to concepts in the artistic process such as identity and vision. In this article, we have chosen to use principles from Mary Jo Hatch and Majken Schultz’s book Use Your Brand. The book covers a series of four models of branding mainly intended for large businesses and organizations, but it is our experience that these models can easily be applied to artistic and even solo businesses.

The book also contains a history of the concept of branding. Branding essentially began as a type of marketing designed to create and address the relationship between product and consumer. The second wave of branding is known as corporate branding, in which many activities become centralized in and around the business. The third wave of branding centers on network thinking and focuses to a large extent on stakeholders’ relationship to business (the artistic business, for example).

Branding is used as strategic positioning, which includes discovering or creating the properties which separate a brand from the competition. Brands should also be able to attract customers and appeal to stakeholders. It reminds them of why they are or should be part of the stakeholder community around the brand.

The VCI Model:

A main principle of Use Your Brand is that branding cannot succeed or function optimally unless there is a link between the strategic vision, the internal organizational culture, and stakeholders’ image of the artistic business. This is called a corporate brand, which is what we will call the whole artistic business. In every successful corporate brand, there is a noticeable link between the leadership’s vision of what they hope to achieve in the future (the strategic vision), the knowledge and beliefs of the employees (embedded in the company’s culture), and the things the external stakeholders expect of or associate with the business (their various images of the business). The founding principle is thus the link between Vision, Culture, and Image (the VCI Model). The more the vision, culture and image are united, the stronger the brand will be (figure 1.1). Conversely, a lack of consistency or too large of a gap between vision, culture and image signal a less than optimal corporate brand.

 

One can imagine the strategic vision, organizational culture, and the stakeholders’ expectations as pieces in a jigsaw puzzle. When spread out on a table, there is no apparent link between the pieces. Once they are put in their correct places, however, they create an integrated, expressive and satisfying whole. This creates a strong company reputation while at the same time aligning the company’s actions with the brand’s promises to all the stakeholders that make up the company. To find out if your corporate brand suffers from a lack of consistency, you may ask yourself the questions illustrated in figure 1.2..

 

Figure 1: Organizational identity

Strategic vision

Organizational culture

Image among stakeholders

Figure 2: Strategic vision: 

  • Are your vision and culture sufficiently different from those of the competitors?
  • Is the company’s vision an inspiration to all of its subcultures?
  • Does the company put into practice the values it preaches?
  • Gaps between vision and culture
  • Gaps between vision and image
  • Gaps between culture and image

Organizational culture: 

  • What is the company’s image among stakeholders?
  • How are the employees and stakeholders integrated?
  • Are the employees interested in how customers perceive the company?
  • Image among stakeholders
  • Do you know what the stakeholders expect of the company?
  • Are the company’s visions and values attractive to stakeholders, and do they support them?

 

Figures based on Use Your Brand, pp. 32-33.

Source: Mary Jo Hatch and Majken Schultz, Use Your Brand, Gyldendal Business, 2009

Business Model Canvas

Business Model Canvas

Business Model Canvas is a model that can provide an overview of the artistic business as a whole. It can be used in individual artistic practices as well as large cultural businesses.

The model is a communicative and analytical tool which allows us to discover and explore the elements of a business, for example the artistic and commercial partnerships and how these interact with the other building blocks of the business. The model works well in teaching entrepreneurship, but it is also a useful tool in the artistic development business, for example when working with students to explore and develop the many ways the artistic practice might play out in a given situation.

The model is developed by theorist Alexander Osterwalder. Osterwalder looks at a company’s business model as a description of how an organization or business creates, delivers and captures value. He illustrates this approach in what he calls the business model canvas.

The approach is presented in the publication Business Model Generation. Here Osterwald describes how a company’s activities can be divided into a series of building blocks which make up the company’s basic activities. The building blocks are: partners, activities, resources, offer of value, customer relationship, distribution channels, expenses and cash flow.

Business Model Canvas is in its design split into a left side which is internally oriented around expenses (cost) and a right side which is customer oriented around value. For example, if a business wants to reach customers through new channels (a building block on the right side), partners (a building block on the left side) will presumably change. Perhaps you decide to have your business shift from using live channels (exhibitions, concerts, cinema screenings, etc.) to online distribution. The change in distributional or promotional format presumably means you will need to find new partnerships that can help your business move forward.

In short, Business Model Canvas is a model that helps us explore and develop our business model in a systematic way.

Read more about the approach in the book Business Model Generation. A free download of 72 pages of the book is available at this link. You can download the template for Business Model Canvas here.

Business Model Generation

Business Model Generation

In 2010, Alexander Osterwalder published the book Business Model Generation, which focuses on the way we work with business models. The education system in particular has embraced Business Model Generation.

The book Business Model Generation describes how a company’s activities can be divided into a series of building blocks. The approach is a strategic and analytical tool which allows us to discover and explore the elements of a business, for example the artistic and commercial partnerships and how these interact with the other building blocks of the business.

The elements of the business are defined by:

Partners, activities, resources, offer of value, customer relationship, distribution channels, expenses and cash flow. Business Model Canvas is the model for this approach. The model is in its design split into a left side which is internally oriented around expenses (cost) and a right side which is customer oriented around value. For example, if a business wants to reach customers through new channels (a building block on the right side), partners (a building block on the left side) will presumably change. Perhaps you decide to have your business shift from using live channels (exhibitions, concerts, cinema screenings, etc.) to online distribution. The change in distributional or promotional format presumably means you will need to find new partnerships that can help your business move forward. In short, Business Model Canvas is a model that helps us explore and develop our business model in a systematic way.Read more about the approach in the book Business Model Generation. A free download of 72 pages of the book is available at this link. You can download the template for Business Model Canvas here.

Business registration

Business registration

It is free to register a personally owned business. We cover the process step by step in CAKI’s Miniguide to Registration of a Personally Owned Business. Read more here.

Business Start

Business Start

Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. You may therefore encounter students who need information about starting their own business.

CAKI’s Handbook: Startup is written for the full spectrum of artistic fields and business types — from soloists and production companies to one-person businesses and Ltd’s. The handbook covers all the general questions you need to consider when starting a business of any size.

Get the handbook here.

Business Types

Business Types

There are many different business types, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most important thing is selecting the type that fills your needs in terms of what you do in your business.

Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide to Business Types here.

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Communication

Communication 

 PR and communication play a major role in how a project or artistic business are presented to the outside world. Therefore, it is important to send a clear signal of what the project, practice or artistic business is about through carefully considered communication. The CAKI Handbook: PR and Communication provides the student with guidance on how to use PR and communication strategically. It includes advice on how to handle contact with the press and media and how to create precise and engaging press materials. Get the handbook here. 

Communities of Practice

Etienne Wenger’s idea of communities of practice focuses on how we as artists can see ourselves as active participants in social communities.

There are communities of practice everywhere, according to Wenger. We all have an affiliation to communities of practice: at home, at work, in school, through our hobbies — we belong to many different communities of practice at any given time. They can be both formal and informal. As artists, we are part of a wide range of communities of practice, including fellow students in a class, work groups and production teams — all of which may be formally structured, and informal groups such as roommates, fellow diners in the cafeteria, or even the smokers on the terrace.                                                     

When Wenger uses the expression “communities of practice,” he uses it as an introduction to a broader terminology for understanding learning. Wegner does not make any distinction between theory and practice with regard to human experience and knowledge: “The relation between practice and theory is always complex and interactive. Meaning exists not as something fixed, but in the dynamic relation, and is therefore subject to change,” says Wenger.

Practice constitutes our actions in a historic and social context, and engagement in practice always involves the whole person and both the action and the knowledge simultaneously.

“We all have our own theories and ways of understanding the world, and our communities of practice are places where we develop, negotiate and share them” (Wenger, 2004, p. 62).

Wenger focuses on learning as social participation — being an active participant in social communities, practicing and constructing identities in relation to these communities.

See and hear Etienne Wenger at the ENTRENord Conference, CAKI 2014 here.

CV

CV for Artists and Creatives

A CV is an overview of a person’s professional experience. When you apply for funding, grants, scholarships, education or a job, you always include a CV in your application. While the application usually describes your motivation or project, your CV quickly and precisely shows your educational background and professional experience. The same goes for the CV you post on your website or as part of your online portfolio or LinkedIN profile – here your CV also needs to quickly and clearly state your educational background and your professional experience.

Fundamental considerations:

  • Start your CV with your name and contact information. You can also include a portrait photograph, but it is not required. If you use a picture, consider the photograph’s appearance. If you choose a conventional portrait shot, always be sure the photo is sharp and in focus. If you choose a less traditional portrait format, you can choose a more experimental visual style.
  • Your CV should always include the category headings Education and Professional Experience. Consider which section the recipient will read first, and present them thereafter in chronological order. It is most common to put the education section first, since it is usually the shortest category.
  • In addition to your professional work, you can also include other relevant experience, such as having served on the board of directors of an association, volunteer work, etc.
  • Categories: If for example you have exhibited your work, performed concerts or have had works published, dedicate a special category to this. This can also be courses, tours abroad or other relevant qualifications you want the recipient to be aware of.
  • If you have a very extensive CV, it may be a good idea to curate the content if you are targeting a specific employer or collaborator. It should certainly include everything you are proud of, but you can still be strategic and tailor your CV, for instance by highlighting assignments in the areas you want to work in in the future.
  • Always list items in a category in chronological order beginning with the most recently started activity. If the activity is finished or you already know when it will be finished, write the start year and the expected end year. If the project is not finished, keep the end year open, but still put the start year first.
  • Describe your experiences, but keep it short! If you only write a job title, it can be difficult for the recipient reading your CV to know exactly what you did in a specific position or assignment. It will therefore be useful to include a short description (a minimum of one line) of exactly what you did and what your assignments consisted of. You may choose to write it in keywords to keep it short.
  • Use several different CVs. When using the CV in a job application, try as much as possible not to exceed one page. In an application process, you want to give the recipient a quick overview of your experience by showing the best of what you have done. In contrast, when using a CV on your website or LinkedIn profile, you can include more experience and use the CV to keep track of what you have done. When using your CV for artistic collaborations, you might want to put the primary focuse on your merits and experiences with your art form.
  • Consider your writing style and your layout. Your writing style and layout can say a lot about who you are, so consider what style is best for the application. If you want to be able to use your CV in several different situations, choose formal language and fonts.
  • Write correctly! You must ALWAYS proofread your CV, and you should also ask another person to proofread it for you. Your CV should be completely free of spelling mistakes and grammatical errors.
  • Use air in your layout. Make sure your CV is easy to read for the eyes. Use margins and line spacing to create a simple overview. Keep the sections aligned to avoid disturbing the natural readability.

Creative alternatives and platforms:

It can be a good idea to use creative formats and platforms to present your CV. For instance, you can combine your CV with a portfolio, sound files, film or a digital platform. Just keep in mind that it should be consistent with the way you want to be perceived. If you aren’t sure about how to proceed with your CV, then stop and reflect before you continue. You can also ask a peer to have a look at it to get their opinion.

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Dialogic Communication

Barnett Pearce provides the field of artistic entrepreneurship with a useful supplement to the more instrumental “transmissions theory of communication.” The instrumental tradition is prominent in for example how-to literature with its fixed templates for communication and marketing on various platforms.

Pearce’s theory of communication can be viewed as challenging the conception of communication as the transmission of information from one individual to another, which Pearce calls the transmission model. It is most effective when the message clearly and precisely expresses the meaning intended by the sender and is interpreted in a way which closely matches that meaning. Pearce believes this often fails because language’s meaning is negotiated in relationships (B. Pearce, 2007, p.39). 

Instead, Pearce presents a social constructive model, or what he calls dialogic communication. Here communication is more a way to create the social world and is always practiced together with others. Rather than “What did you mean by that?” the more relevant questions are “What are we doing together?”, “How do we do it?” and “How can we create better social worlds?” (Pearce, 2007, pp. 39-40) 

Pearce and Cronen, who together developed the CMM Model (see elsewhere in ENTREWIKI), also draw upon Appreciative Inquiry. In the CMM theory (Coordinated Management of Meaning), the two authors delve into our speech acts, which constitute (as basic units) our sentence constructions and their combinations. The effects of speech acts are called language’s implicative force (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 245). 

Speech acts create episodes and relationships which affect our narratives (self-stories) and the culture around us. Conversely, context affects us (contextual force, as Pearce calls it) in such a way that the culture affects our self-stories, which in turn affect relationships, and speech acts (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 247). 

“We are inclined to see what we know, rather than the other way around, and our ability to latch onto bifurcation points and make smart decisions about how we should proceed at these bifurcation points requires sharpened conceptual tools for understanding communication.” (Pearce, 2007, p. 19) 

References:

Barnett Pearce: Communication and the Making of Social Worlds, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2007

Hanne V. Moltke and Asbjørn Molly, editors: Systemic Coaching: A Primer, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009

Domain theory (the communicative domains)

The Communicative Domains 

Source: Systemic Coaching: A Primer, Hanne V. Moltke and Asbjørn Molley, editors. Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009 

The domain theory is created by Peter Lang, Vernon Cronen and Martin Little based on the work of Humberto Maturana. When the domain theory is interpreted as a tool, it becomes a dialog tool that can be used to work with social relations in the artistic business. The tool clarifies the social and relational dimensions of the work and is especially applicable when treating complicated or sensitive topics in an artistic practice for example in the mental working environment. The domain tool structures the discussion of the topic and sets specific dialog rules which create confidence, transparency and openness to the different viewpoints.  

Introduction to Domain Theory 

 Domains can be seen as communication “rooms” that one enters and exits through the conversation. Each room has its own unique language and logic which describe specific elements and angles of an issue. In other words, special codes of language and logic govern each domain (room). 

The domain theory is an attempt to clarify three separate logics which we use to see, understand and describe the world. The domains (logics) exist side by side in the conversation, but as a rule, one of the domains is dominant at a given time compared to the other two.  The three domains are the personal domain, the domain of production and the domain of reflection. 

The Personal Domain 

The personal domain is the language designated by the participants’ values, morals and ethics. Here the participants cannot relate neutrally but take personal positions based on what they consider to be good practice. In the personal domain the participants speak as private individuals with their attitudes, emotions and opinions. They have personal positions based on how they experience the situation.Regarding the topics of mental working environment and work pressure, the participants’ communication in the personal domain will for example address what each member considers a reasonable workload, how they define their personal limit of work pressure, and what creates good processes and job satisfaction for the individual. 

The Domain of Production 

Opposite the personal domain is the domain of production. This domain concerns the rules, routines, guidelines and already adopted procedures that are the basis for the artistic work and which govern specific situations and tasks. This domain is where the participant or co-worker speaks about the established way of doing things. Unlike in the personal domain, one cannot decide for themselves what is right or wrong in the domain of production. One follows the already adopted procedures and guidelines — just as in traffic rules where everyone knows green means go and red means stop. For this reason, in the domain of production, leaders primarily perform their leadership tasks. When one addresses work pressure in the domain of production, the conversation will usually address prioritization of job tasks, expected quality level and standards in task solutions as well as procedures and rules for job performance. Thus, large problems are created in this domain when there are conflicting interpretations of what the rules are, what is right in specific situations, and the correct course of action (compare to the example with traffic signals). 

The Domain of Reflection 

The third and final domain is the domain of reflection, in which the world is considered subjectively. Unlike in the personal domain, in this “room” we are more open to others’ viewpoints, and our own experience or opinion is subject to reflection. In this domain, it is less interesting to reach a final conclusion than to hear others’ perspectives on the subject and develop a new understanding together. When we address the subject of work pressure, in the personal domain we are biased by our personal experiences and values, while the domain of production restricts us through authority and the rules of the community. However, in the domain of reflection, it is possible to lift ourselves above the subject together in order to see the problems of work pressure from new perspectives. 

Practical Application of Domain Theory 

The objective of applying domain tools to create better mental working environments is threefold: 

  1. To structure communication so that dialogue follows specific steps. Knowing that the dialogue is directed and structured creates stability and predictability in regard to a complicated and sometimes delicate subject. 
  2. To consider as many perspectives and logics in the mental working environment as possible through communication about the mental working environment. Holding a dialogue about the mental working environment in each of the three domains consecutively ensures that the group will gain a thorough understanding of all perspectives on the subject. 
  3. That communication about the mental working environment in different domains enriches each other, creating a fertile ground for new understandings and ways of acting. For example, a dialogue in the domain of reflection can help add new understandings to the individual participants’ subjective understanding of his/her mental working environment in the personal domain and inspire new agreements about how to proceed in the domain of production. 

As a bonus, using the domain tools has the added effect of strengthening the participants’ ability to identify which domains govern different situations and to recognize when disagreements occur because participants are communicating based on different domains and logics.  A similarity between the domains is that they seem obvious and logical to the individual speaking. Disagreements therefore occur most often when parties communicate based on different domains (when one party is talking about their emotions while the other refers to rules and procedures, they are probably talking past each other). 

Sources:  

https://www.lederweb.dk/artikler/domaeneteorien-i-teori-og-praksis/ 

Systemic Coaching: A Primer. Hanne V. Moltke and Asbjørn Molly (editors), Danish Psychological publishing 

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Effectuation

Effectuation

Effectuation refers to a non-linear approach to working in a non-causal process. As such, the approach is applicable to the artistic practice and business, which often cannot be placed into a predetermined causal context. The basic premise of effectuation is the idea that the future can be influenced through actions. In other words, one creates one’s own possibilities. The method is developed by Sara Sarasvathy. Sarasvathy’s theory of effectuation describes an approach to decision-making and action in processes in which one identifies the best next step toward reaching one’s goal based on the resources available. Along with this, one can also adjust their direction in relation to the outcome of their actions.  

Effectuation goes against causal logic in which one defines a firm goal and makes a detailed plan of the path they will take to reach it. This causal approach is often inappropriate for use in processes characterized by unpredictability and uncertainty, such as the process of innovation in the artistic practice and business. The basis of the method is what Sarasvathy calls the Pilot in the Plane Principle. Sara Sarasvathy is a professor at Virginia University. She developed the basic principles of the theory of effectuation in 2001 and still works with it intensively today.  

In 2007, Sarasvathy was named one of the 18 best professors of entrepreneurship by the magazine Fortune Small Business. She received an honorary doctorate from Babson College in 2013 for the impact of her work on entrepreneurship education. Read more about effectuation and get the CAKI Miniguide: Effectuation here. 

Externalization 

Externalization is a tool that can be used in the artistic practice and business as well as in shared processes and feedback culture. Using externalizing language can help separate a person/persons from the process, product, artistic expression or problem in a work process. In externalization, the problem or challenge becomes an object or a separate entity that can be examined and dealt with. Externalizing language invites one or more people into an appreciative, listening and descriptive context in which they see each other as competent contributors. In relation to a feedback culture in an artistic space, separating the art from the artist can be constructive and make it possible to explore and notice new perspectives and future-oriented actions. 

The externalization tool is part of the narrative practice and is used when it is necessary to create a reflexive distance between experienced problems and personal identity. The method is a way to deconstruct problematic narratives, thereby questioning the common conclusions about these narratives. 

In an everyday understanding, we often have a tendency to think or speak about problems and difficulties as if they are located inside ourselves and others: “I’m inexperienced and insecure,” “My texts are not good enough” or “The others in my project don’t understand my artistic vision.” We use internalizing logic. The deficiencies or problems we experience are a reflection of specific “truths” about our own or others’ identities and natures, and they begin to define who we are. 

According to Michael White, who developed the method, every statement can be internalized or externalized as a question. For example, a statement like “There’s a negative attitude in the group” can be internalized as “What signs show there is a negative attitude?” or externalized as “What effect does it have that the negative attitude has so much influence?” The negative attitude is externalized this way so the person or persons have a chance to get the negative attitude outside themselves and instead position themselves or take a stance in relation to it. The problem “negative attitude” becomes external and is no longer part of the person / persons. 

White has developed a position map to create a reflexive distance between experienced problems and the personal identity (White, 2007). White uses the map as a metaphor, because in a narrative perspective, a story is seen as a landscape where one can move around. In the narrative practice, a consultant or therapist can now use a series of maps to help the person or persons find their way to new places and preferred destinations for the given story. Subsequently, they can work toward attributing more value to other and more constructive stories. 

 Text based on Michala Schnoor’s book Narrative Organizational Development — Forming Common Meaning and Action, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009 

Externalization

Externalization is a tool that can be used in the artistic practice and business as well as in shared processes and feedback culture. Using externalizing language can help separate a person/persons from the process, product, artistic expression or problem in a work process. In externalization, the problem or challenge becomes an object or a separate entity that can be examined and dealt with. Externalizing language invites one or more people into an appreciative, listening and descriptive context in which they see each other as competent contributors. In relation to a feedback culture in an artistic space, separating the art from the artist can be constructive and make it possible to explore and notice new perspectives and future-oriented actions.

The externalization tool is part of the narrative practice and is used when it is necessary to create a reflexive distance between experienced problems and personal identity. The method is a way to deconstruct problematic narratives, thereby questioning the common conclusions about these narratives.

In an everyday understanding, we often have a tendency to think or speak about problems and difficulties as if they are located inside ourselves and others: “I’m inexperienced and insecure,” “My texts are not good enough” or “The others in my project don’t understand my artistic vision.” We use internalizing logic. The deficiencies or problems we experience are a reflection of specific “truths” about our own or others’ identities and natures, and they begin to define who we are.

According to Michael White, who developed the method, every statement can be internalized or externalized as a question. For example, a statement like “There’s a negative attitude in the group” can be internalized as “What signs show there is a negative attitude?” or externalized as “What effect does it have that the negative attitude has so much influence?” The negative attitude is externalized this way so the person or persons have a chance to get the negative attitude outside themselves and instead position themselves or take a stance in relation to it. The problem “negative attitude” becomes external and is no longer part of the person / persons.

White has developed a position map to create a reflexive distance between experienced problems and the personal identity (White, 2007). White uses the map as a metaphor, because in a narrative perspective, a story is seen as a landscape where one can move around. In the narrative practice, a consultant or therapist can now use a series of maps to help the person or persons find their way to new places and preferred destinations for the given story. Subsequently, they can work toward attributing more value to other and more constructive stories.

Text based on Michala Schnoor’s book Narrative Organizational Development — Forming Common Meaning and Action, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009

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Fundraising

Fundraising 

Fundraising can provide finances to allow the artistic business to conduct studies, realize projects and works or to try out and experiment with production formats and partnerships. An artistic business often receives a part of its capital through fundraising. This is the case for both small and medium sized artistic businesses and practices as well as larger cultural businesses like festivals and kunsthaller. 

 Free cultural funds are found in public and private foundations, which do not require a definite economic return on their investment. Instead, these sources focus on supporting and developing an area as a whole. An example is the Bikuben Foundation, which supports theatre, visual arts and young people affected by social problems. Another example is funding from municipalities’ leisure and cultural administrations, which support cultural endeavors and business in their respective municipalities. Funding can also be offered with varying degrees of freedom, for example when the Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) earmarks funds for a specific effort for vulnerable neighborhoods. Fundraising is more than just submitting applications. It can also involve crowdfunding, sponsorships, partnerships, fundraiser events and other funding options.  

 Regardless of which approach you take to fundraising, you should plan your fundraiser work and have an economic overview of the project’s development, needs and possibilities. You should have your arguments in place and be precise in your description of what exactly you are requesting funding for. It is not so important whether you are fundraising for something big or small, or if you are seeking funds for development, projects or business ideas. Perhaps you need the money to produce an album. Perhaps your group is looking to procure funds for a festival, or maybe you want to create a theatrical production abroad. There are many basic materials you must have in place, when you start the process of raising funds. Whether you are fundraising for large or small projects, whether you seek funds for partners, locally, nationally, or internationally, your basic materials will be the starting point for the process. Your basic materials are your project description (what), timeline (when) and budget (how much). Read more in CAKI Handbook: Fundraising 

 

Financial Management

Financial Management

Financial management is an important function in the artistic business and project management in general. Budgeting, bookkeeping, financial reporting and knowledge of the rules and laws concerning finances in the artistic business are a necessity. Read more about financial management here.

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Idea Development

Idea Development 

The idea is the concept that must carry the whole project. Therefore, it is important to gain experience with idea development so you learn how to develop thorough and sustainable projects. Our CAKI Handbook: Idea Development and Project Management provides guidance in navigating the idea process in all its phases — from the earliest stages to planning and implementation strategy. 

Get the handbook here.

Interview Technique

Interview Technique

For many artists, the ability to perform interviews can be useful when conducting research for an artistic job or when seeking to expand one’s knowledge about an area of work. Journalist Kurt Strand has written the book Interview for Journalists (Kurt Strand, Ajour, 2020), which is the basis for the following guide to interview technique.

Interview comes from the French entrevue, which means a short, arranged meeting between two people. The interviewer asks questions in order to obtain knowledge about something which the interview subject (source) then chooses to share with the interviewer, and in many cases the general public.

Kurt Strand outlines the basic rules of interviewing:

  • An interview is a planned and controlled dissemination of a person’s opinions, arguments, knowledge and experience.
  • The interviewer asks the questions and plays a minor role — the interview subject has the lead role and answers the questions.
  • The interviewer is subjective but must be fair, honest and polite, in other words neutral.

Interview is both method and genre

Input-interview: Interview as method. Typically used in research together with other tools for the collection of facts. Output-interview: Interview as genre. Here the genre appears in the end result with discernible questions and answers or through the interviewer’s use of relevant clips or quotations.

Interview is not a conversation

The opposite of an interview is a conversation in which two participants are equals. Some interviewers choose to allow the process to develop without exercising tight control, but this requires that the interviewer has a plan for how to regain control so that the interview subject does not take over.Time is a critical factor if an interviewer abandons the questions in order to debate or engage in a longer conversation with the interview subject. The interviewer must know his or her own limitations in the conversational relationship, for example concerning general knowledge, personal engagement and respect.

The interviewer must have a bottom line

The interviewer’s ability to control the conversation comes from the basic principle of all journalism: What is the story? Good reporting trims away the unnecessary, leaving one story as the conclusion. The human brain cannot process too much information at the same time. Therefore, the interviewer must consciously consider and decide what is central to the story, why the story is relevant to the audience, and how to convey the story so that it is received and understood.

Interviewers may ask themselves:

  • What should the audience know?
  • What do they already know?
  • What do they not need to know?
  • What can or should be the bottom line?

Journalism, the profession behind interviews, consists of being highly prepared to listen, doubt and ask questions — challenge, settle and examine.

Targeted preparation

A good interview is the result of good preparation and good questions. In order to conduct precise research with a minimum of waste, the interviewer should know his or her interview goal as early in the preparation process as possible. A precise goal ensures focused research.

Two kinds of questions

Open questions begin with words like what, why and how.

Closed questions can be answered with a yes or no and often produce longer and less constructive answers.

Closed questions                                                                 Open questions

long and vague                                                                      short and precise

contain “noise”                                                                       ownership-based

appealing                                                                              challenging

pseudocritical                                                                         uncovered

aggressive                                                                            friendly

A successful interview will usually consist of mostly open questions, because they allow opinions, arguments and experiences to emerge more clearly and let the interview subject say the integral words.

Atmosphere, respect and sympathy

A positive atmosphere around an interview is essential to the result. The interview subject must feel comfortable with what will happen, for example by knowing the themes that will be addressed. A certain level of respect and sympathy for the interview subject is important.The interviewer should have the composure to be curious, attentive and present in the moment.

Source: Kurt Strand, Interview for Journalists, Ajour, 2020, pp. 11-29

Kurt Strand: https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Strand

Invoice Rules

Invoice: What to include in an invoice 

Whenever you sell a service, an art work or a product, you must give the customer an invoice and keep a copy of the invoice in your records to document your income. By law, your invoice must include: 

  • A continuing invoice number 
  • Date of invoice 
  • Your company name and address 
  • Your CVR number (or CPR if you are not registered with a CVR-nr.) 
  • The goods/services you have sold and their quantity and price 
  • Sales tax amount 
  • Payment conditions (ho wthe money should be paid) 
  • Payment information (where you want to be paid) 
  • The customer’s name and address (if possible) 
Income Tax (SKAT)

Income Tax (SKAT)

As a teacher, you may encounter students who have questions regarding taxation in their artistic practice or business. This applies to businesses both with and without CVR numbers.

If you are self-employed in the artistic business, you will likely have both A B income and will pay A-Tax as well as B-Tax, and possibly corporate tax or dividend tax. You can read about all of this in CAKI’s Miniguide to Income Tax here.

IPR - Intellectual Property Rights
Knowledge about intellectual property rights is key in any artistic practice. This publication makes IPR accessible and understandable for students as well as professionals – download it here.

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Karl Tomm’s Question Types

Karl Tomm’s Question Types

The ability to ask questions is a core competency for any teacher, leader or coach. Specific questions focus our attention in specific directions, which is why it is important for a teacher or leader of artistic processes to be aware of the different question types.Karl Tomm is on the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary as professor of psychiatry and directs the Calgary Family Therapy Centre, which he founded in 1973. Tomm is deeply interested in the application of system theory and narrative theory in relation to communication. In Tomm’s method of systemic coaching, every question opens a domain of legitimate answers. One tool Tomm has developed is a wheel illustrating an interviewer’s question types organized by the intent of each question, the assumptions behind the question, and the opportunities the question either opens or closes for the rest of the interview.

For example, “why”-questions produce confrontational answers, since the question of why adheres to a linear, cause-and-effect logic which encourages simple answers and “because”-statements. (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009).

Tomm’s wheel has a horizontal axis of intent which places the intents of orienting to the past on the left and influencing the future on the right. The intent axis is intersected by the vertical assumption axis with linear assumptions (with a single possible assumption) at the top and circular assumptions (with many possibilities) at the bottom. Assumptions may be perceived as complementary and can thereby enrich each other.These two axes, the intent and assumption axes, form the basis of Tomm’s categorization of question types (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, pp. 122-124). Karl tomm’s question types can be combined with ENTREWIKI: Appreciative Inquiry or ENTREWIKI: The Reflecting Team

The model is taken from Systemic Coaching: A Primer, ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, available here.

 

Application of the Model

In relation to an interview following the model above, Karl Tomm finds it appropriate to start with the linear, past-oriented questions and simple questions, illustrated here by the detective. Linear questions have a clarifying character, create contact and can for example address: What is the problem, in what ways do you experience it, and what do you do? (Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 126). From there, the interviewer moves into circular questions, which may appear more complex but are still open-ended, illustrated by the anthropologist. Examples of these questions can be: How do you think others see the situation? What do you think others are trying to communicate with that? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 128).

The reflexive questions are illustrated by the futurist and are now oriented toward the future but still rest on a circular understanding of the world. Questions like: What do you think others would say it would take to solve the problem? What would the others’ actions help you to do? Finally, the interviewer takes on a more leading captain role by posing simple, future-oriented questions. With this, we come back to a more linear understanding of the world, where the goal is to influence the person in focus to act. Examples of questions: How long may this problem exist? Might it be a good idea to…? What specifically will you go home and do? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, pp. 130-131).

Kolb’s Learning Circle

Kolb’s Learning Circle 

David A. Kolb is an American author whose work focuses on learning methods. He is the author of the book Experiential Learning. In Denmark his methods have gained ground in the learning system Flexlearn, among others. David Kolb has worked with the connections between learning, working, and how new knowledge is formed. The learning circle (also known as Kolb’s learning cycle) is a method for understanding the processes, which are at the foundation of learning. As a teacher, the circle can also be used to organize teaching and learning processes. David A. Kolb has divided the process into four phases: experience (concrete learning), reviewing (reflective observation), conceptualization (abstract understanding) and experimentation (systematic testing).  

(Illustration:) 

  • Entering a new learning process 
  • Concrete experience 
  • Reflective observation 
  • Abstract understanding 
  • Systematic experimentation  

 The learner processes concrete experience and impressions through reflection. When you reflect, you wonder about what you experience, read or hear. You examine the connection between the experience and what you already know. In this sense, reflection is more than just disconnected thoughts. Next, the learner considers theories or abstract models and examines the connection between the existing knowledge and newly acquired experiences. The learner seeks to adapt the new knowledge to the old, both concretely and abstractly. In some cases, this will mean revising your perception of your current knowledge. The newly acquired knowledge is then actively tested out. In other words, you train yourself in the learned material until it becomes part of yourself. Finally, you are ready to acquire new experiences and to learn new material again and again.  

Sources: David A. Kolb: Experiential learning, 1984, Experience as the source of learning and development 

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Megatrends

Megatrends are a tool that can help the student understand the global patterns and movements that influence how we form our identity and spending across cultures, economies, technologies and globalization. Megatrends are defined by describing the global development tendencies in society that are significant to people, organizations and businesses. Used methodically, megatrends can tell us about tendencies in the outside world from both a present and forward-looking perspective. Many companies and organizations use megatrends to predict the needs and expectations of a constantly changing world, for example regarding new technologies like streaming, which influences elements such as the release formats of artistic works. By using megatrends, one can move to the forefront with the development of new innovative solutions and expectations of the future through structured trend analysis and understanding. Megatrends are also a method that can help us predict and understand the tendencies that affect many aspects of the world’s population’s way of living.

You can read more about a global Danish business that uses megatrends here,or visit Innovationlab, which specializes in trendspotting.

Mentorship
Mentorship

A mentor is an experienced person who wants to share their knowledge by guiding and teaching, while a mentee is a less experienced person who is motivated to expand their competencies and opportunities by entering a dialogue with a mentor. A mentorship builds upon an open dialogue between the mentor and mentee, whereby the mentor can inspire and support the mentee regarding education, career or personal development. Read more about mentorship and mentoring programs here.

Mindset Theory: Carol Dweck
Mindset Theory

Fixed vs. growth mindset: the two types

When it comes to our attitude toward learning, there are two types. You likely know them both. The first type is quick to give up and is not interested in learning new things. She says things like: “I’m not good at that, so I can’t learn it” or “I’m good at this, so I don’t need to challenge myself.” Conversely, the second type loves to learn new things. She throws herself into new areas and is endlessly curious about how things work. The idea that our attitudes toward learning could be so different surprised researcher Carol Dweck as early as the 1970’s, when she first noticed the difference in children. She called the two mindsets fixed mindset and growth mindset.

According to Dweck, the kind of mindset or thinking pattern you have plays a major role in predicting your level of performance. It all depends on how you perceive the word “learning” — whether you believe talent is inborn and therefore something you either have or don’t have, or you believe talent can be developed through hard work, strategy, and input from others.

If you have a growth mindset, you will get better results according to Dweck.

The good news is that you can change your thinking pattern at any time. Which mindset are you?

In her book, Mindset: the New Psychology of Success, Dweck describes how people with fixed mindsets believe that abilities are set in stone. According to Dweck, this creates a tendency to avoid challenges, give up easily, see effort as useless, and feel threatened by the success of others. Those who have a growth mindset on the other hand believe that one’s basic abilities can be developed through effort. This means that people with a growth mindset embrace challenges, show persistence when challenged, view effort as the way to mastery, and learn from others’ successes.

Source: https://lederindsigt.dk/vaerktoejer-skabeloner/hr-og-personlig-udvikling/derfor-skal-du-kende-dit-tankemoenster/

References:

Carol Dweck: Du er hvad du tænker. Den nye mindset-teori om vejen til succes. Borgen, 2017

Carol Dweck: Mindset. The new psychology of succes, 2008

Chris Hildrew: Becoming a Growth Mindset School. The power of Mindset to Transform Teaching, Leadership and Learning. Routledge, 2018

B.Hymner & M. Gershon: Growth Mindset Pocketbook. Teachers Pocketbooks, 2914.

Boaler: Mathematical Mindsets. (look at:www.youcubed.org)

Links:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUWn_TJTrnU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiiEeMN7vbQ

 

 

 

 

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Negotiation

Negotiation 

As a teacher in an art education, you may encounter students who need advice on pricing their work.It is important that the student’s education includes guidance on how to receive fair pay and compensation for their work, both to keep their business model working and to avoid underbidding the market to the disadvantage of themselves and their colleagues. Read more about negotiation in the artistic business in CAKI’s Miniguide to Pricing and Negotiation here.

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Office Communities

Office Communities 

There are many reasons why renting a space in an office community can be a good investment, when you no longer have access to the work facilities provided by your educational institution. CAKI provides an overview of the creative office communities in Copenhagen here.  

Note: updated by request only. 

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Participation and Reification

For artists, Etienne Wenger’s theory of negotiation of meaning in the space between procedure and completion can be an interesting perspective regarding one’s own artistic practice. 

According to Wenger, participation and reification cannot be considered separately: they are a pair. They form a unit in their duality. To simplify this in terms of artistic practice, one might say that participation is the process and reification is a result we present. The reification of the presented play or film is only a product and is empty without participation. Inversely, the production of a film or play – reification essential for interaction – is the form of negotiation that is necessary for a society and can unite the many perspectives, interests and interpretations that participation entails. The reification is empty without the involved citizens’ participation.  

Negotiation of meaning weaves participation and reification so tightly together that meaning seems to have its own unitary, self-sufficient existence. According to Wenger, participation and reification are both different and complementary in their interaction; they make up one unit in their duality. To activate the one, it is necessary to activate the other (Wenger, 2004, pp. 77-78).  

When we in connection with participation recognize ourselves in each other, in connection with reification, we project ourselves out into the world, and since we don’t need to recognize ourselves in the projections, we give our meanings an independent existence. That opposition between reciprocity and projection are an important difference between participation and reification.(Wenger, 2004, p. 73) 

Source, model and text:Communities of Practice, Etienne Wegner, Hans Reitzel Publishing, 2004 

See more of Etienne Wenger under ENTREWIKI: Communities of Practice 

See and hear Etienne Wegner’s presentation at the ENTRENord conference, CAKI. 2014 here.

Payroll Tax
Payroll Tax

Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. Therefore, you may encounter students who need knowledge about the tax rules that apply to their particular type of artistic business. The rules for tax registration and payroll tax are part of the knowledge one needs when registering a business. Read more about sales tax, artist tax and payroll tax in CAKI’s Miniguide here.

 

Pitching
Pitching

A pitch is a technique of communication in which your idea or suggestion is presented quickly and concisely. Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide to Pitching here.

Portfolio
Portfolio

The value of an online portfolio is almost immeasurable when you work independently in an artistic field. Whether you are a job seeker, freelancer or self-employed, the portfolio is where you show and present your work and make yourself available to customers, collaborators, curators, bookers, foundations, etc. Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide to Online Portfolios here.

The Push Method

The Push Method

The push method is an empirically and theoretically supported model which uses seven strategies to help students transform their professional knowledge into action. The Push Method outlines the transition between having knowledge about something to visualizing and taking action based on thoughts.

The Push Method works by visualizing a project through the requirement of action – a push – and thereby a transformative action. The transformative action creates a reflection of how the action can be improved and changed, which in turn creates new thoughts and visualizations of action.

Read more about the Push Method here.

PR and Communication
PR and Communication

PR and communication play a crucial role in how a project or an artistic business are presented to the outside world. Therefore, it is important to send a clear signal of what the project, practice or artistic business is about through carefully considered communication.

The CAKI Handbook: PR and Communication provides the student with guidance on how to use PR and communication strategically. It includes advice on how to handle contact with the press and media and how to create precise and engaging press materials.

Get the handbook here.

Pricing

Pricing 

As a teacher in an art education, you may encounter students who need advice about pricing their work. It is important that the student’s education includes guidance on how to receive fair compensation for their work, both to keep their business model working and to avoid underbidding the market to the disadvantage of themselves and their colleagues.   

 Read more about pricing in the artistic business in CAKI’s Miniguide to Pricing and Negotiation here 

Progression Model
Progression Model

Our understanding of the concept of entrepreneurship has expanded significantly over the last ten years. The term entrepreneurship has previously been synonymous with starting a business, but its definition has now broadened to include both social and cultural entrepreneurship. As such, the purpose of instruction in entrepreneurship and innovation appears complex, since it must provide students with knowledge and competencies that can be applied in many different contexts. Instruction in entrepreneurship and innovation thus becomes part of a forward-looking cultivation ideal which will give students the competencies to see opportunities and create value in the broader understanding. Entrepreneurship instruction must simultaneously give trainees and students the tools to handle the many challenges associated with being a human being in a globalized and changing world.

The expansion of the concept of entrepreneurship therefore affects the goal of innovation and entrepreneurship instruction, which is broadly defined as:

  • Giving the individual the opportunity and tools to shape their own life
  • Educating responsible, engaged citizens
  • Expanding knowledge and ambitions regarding establishing businesses and workplaces
  • Increasing creativity and innovation in existing organizations
  • Creating growth, development and welfare

In order to realize this complex goal, the Foundation for Entrepreneurship has developed a so-called progression model to clarify the specifics of innovation and entrepreneurship as a learning objective at various levels of the education system. The ambition is to secure a shared conceptual understanding of entrepreneurship as well as an understanding of the progression of learning objectives and the entrepreneurial and innovative culture which results from the realization of the learning objectives in teaching. 

Get the publication Progression Model here.

Project Management

Project Management

Basic knowledge of project management is the foundation which enables students to understand how to run their projects in the most sensible manner. In the CAKI Handbook: Idea Development and Project Management, we give the student the necessary tools to become a successful project manager in an artistic practice.

Get the handbook here.

Quality and Relevance in the Artistic Business

Quality and Relevance in the Artistic Business

“Quality and Relevance in the Artistic Business” is the title of one of the themes in ENTRE PROGRAM. Read more about the program here.

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Sensmaking

Sensemaking

Karl Weick’s 7 Properties of Sensemaking:

How do we create meaning in the artistic business? One way is by letting the action come before the individual. The American organization theorist Karl Weick puts the entrepreneurial and artistic action in focus rather than the entrepreneur or artist themselves. This creates opportunities for sensemaking, which also means expanding the opportunities of the artistic business, for example with regard to flexibility in the face of a global and changing labor market. According to Karl Weick, sensemaking is a process that occurs in the interaction between people and their surroundings. Meaning is not simply communicated by the artistic leader to the co-worker or participant in an artistic process — meaning (sense) is first established for the co-worker or participant when he or she becomes an active co-creator of the process together with others. Sensemaking is a theory developed in an attempt to understand interaction in organizations as well as the link between organization and sensemaking. Karl Weick moves the focus away from the person and onto the actions and the small retrospective victories that can drive a process forward.

 

7 Properties of Sensemaking According to Weick, the process of sensemaking has seven properties. By being conscious of these seven properties, it is possible to stimulate the positive formation of meaning: 

 

  1. Social context: Sensemaking occurs in interaction with others by attaching ourselves to the social context we are part of: “Sensemaking is influenced by the actual, implied or imagined presence of others (…) To change meaning is to change the social context” (Weick, p. 461, 2001).
  2. Personal identity: According to Weick, the individual is distributive. No individual acts as a single sensemaker. Identity is formed through an interactive process with other people, and that determines the individual’s definition of himself/herself.
  3. Retrospect — at the end: Meaning occurs in retrospect, through a reading of the past, a time when the artist and the entrepreneur may have been embedded in discourse. Hindsight is essential to understanding the present.
  4. Salient cues — plot: that which is designated as significant or conspicuous. Sensemaking is focused on and derived from clues or a plot. “To make sense is to focus on a limited set of cues, and to elaborate those few cues into a plausible, pragmatic, momentarily useful guide for actions that themselves are partially defining the guide that they follow.” (Weick, 2001, p. 460)
  5. Ongoing projects — fluid present: Our interaction process with other people is happening all the time, and we can therefore see ourselves and our actions as in constant motion. We have opportunities for many beginnings and endings. “Experience is a continuous flow, and it becomes an event only when efforts are made to put boundaries around some portion of the flow, or when some interruption occurs” (Weick, 2001, p. 462)
  6. Trustworthiness: In order to achieve plausibility, actions must be attached to practice. “Sensemaking is about coherence, how events hang together, certainty that is efficient for present purposes, and credibility.” (Weick, 2001, p. 462)
  7. Enactment — action: Since, according to Weick, we create meaning in retrospect, experimentation and adjustment along the way are central. Action produces reaction, and the meaning of a situation is often in the response. Small wins, as Weick calls them, mean that even the slightest win is a concrete implemented outcome of moderate importance. A small win seems insignificant in itself, but a series of small wins reveals a pattern that can attract allies and deter opponents. Small wins are controllable possibilities that produce visible results. When a small win is achieved, forces are set in motion (Weick, 2001, p. 432).

 

With the entrepreneurial and artistic actions in focus instead of the entrepreneur or artist, we set the stage for sensemaking, especially in the global and changing labor market. 

 

Source: Karl Weick: Making Sense of the Organization, Blackwell Publishing, 2001

Starting a Business

Starting a Business

Sometimes it makes sense to register a business while you are still in school. Knowledge about starting a business is therefore something the art student needs to have access to. As an artist, you are often in the position of creating your own work through your practice. You develop and run your business yourself – you have an independent profession. Therefore, within the framework you set for your business, you must not only be able to perform your professional work and art practice – you have to create financial stability in your personal life as well, since the personal and professional are strongly connected when you are self-employed.

CAKI’s Handbook: Startup is written for the full spectrum of artistic fields and for all types of businesses – from soloists to production companies, from one-person businesses to Ltd’s. It describes the overall questions you need to consider when starting a business, no matter the size. Get the handbook here.

 

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The CMM Model

The CMM Model is developed by theorists Barnett Pearce and Vernon Cronen. 

The CMM Model addresses how we as artists can make a difference through our choice of communication. Further, the model focuses on the idea that, through our speech acts, we can participate in changing the world. A focus on the contextual force allows for reflection and meaning making by constantly directing our attention outward toward the influences the students experience through cultural discourse, which affect their self-stories, relationships, episodes and speech acts. This makes it possible to have a reflexive relationship to media, literature and other materials expressed by authorities with knowledge and power in art and culture. 

The CMM (Coordinated Management of Meaning) Model is developed by two American professors of communication, Barnett Pearce and Vernon Cronen. The model can be used to clarify for example which culture an artist is speaking to or belongs to and how contextual force influences that. Conversely, the model also reveals how our speech acts, episodes, relationships and self-narratives have implicative force (consequences) and thereby influence a culture.  

 

A basic principle of the CMM Model is that there are always many contexts at play in a conversation. Many misunderstandings arise because we usually take it for granted that the person we are talking to is operating in the same contexts as we are. Pearce and Cronen say themselves that, with their model, they are introducing a communications perspective on our actions. It is a perspective which enables us to look at communication rather than through it. The model relates itself to so-called dialogic communication.  

Pearce and Cronen draw upon appreciative inquiry to delve into the speech acts which constitute (as basic units) our sentence constructions and their combinations. Speech acts create episodes and relationships which affect our narratives (self-stories) and the culture around us. We thereby become aware of our linguistic acts right down to the construction of types of questions and their expected resulting answers along with where we can act differently in communication. (Moltke and Molly, editors, 2009, pp. 245-247) 

References 

Barnett Pearce: Communication and the Making of Social Worlds, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2007 

Hanne V. Moltke and Asbørn Molly, editors: Systematic Coaching: A Primer. Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009 

Talk: Barnett Pearce on Coordinated Management of Meaning: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvME-Y5A3Og

 

The Relecting Team

The focus in the Reflecting Team is on the production of questions. The Reflecting Team is a reflection tool that draws upon the collective resources. Here the focus is on the entrepreneurial process to which the collective contributes in each their own way, rather than what the individual can perform as independent entrepreneur. With the Reflecting Team, you often begin to notice the circular. The process, the complexity and the many possible answers which can contribute to broadening the understanding of the way things are connected. 

The Reflecting Team thereby also challenges the notion that the subject of entrepreneurship is a cause-and-effect subject that ascribes to the Schumpeterian understanding of entrepreneurship. The Reflecting Team is made up of an interviewer (coach), a person with a challenge, and a reflecting team (a minimum of two people). The Reflecting Team must be a safe space in which a person can discover new perspectives and possible courses of action for a given situation or problem with help from the collective. The Reflecting Team has an observer status but is brought into play as a dialog partner for the interviewer during the conversation with their reflections on the further course of the conversation. This could address for example how a student can move forward with an orchestra he or she is about to establish, or how to handle certain teaching situations. The possibilities are completely open. The focus is on the questions and the interviewer but can at the same time spark new waves of thought in the interviewee. When beginning to explore the different categories of questions, according to the following model (Karl Tomm’s question types – see also elsewhere in the WIKI for more on Tomm), we start with the linear past-oriented and simple questions, illustrated here by the detective. Linear questions have a clarifying character, create contact and can for example address: What is the problem, in what ways do you experience it, and what do you do? (Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 126). 

From there, the interviewer moves into circular questions, which may appear more complex but are still open-ended, illustrated by the anthropologist. Examples of these questions can be: How do you think others see the situation? What do you think others are trying to communicate with that? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 128). The reflective questions are illustrated by the futurist and are now oriented toward the future but still rest on a circular understanding of the world. Questions like: What do you think others would say it would take to solve the problem? What would the others’ actions help you to do? Finally, the interviewer takes on a more leading role by posing simple, future-oriented questions. With this, we come back to a more linear understanding of the world, where the goal is to influence the person in focus to act. Examples of questions: How long may this problem exist? Might it be a good idea to…? What specifically will you go home and do? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, pp. 130-131). An important exercise in the Reflecting Team is to have the students listen and pose questions to each other without suggesting their own solutions. This often seems to fall just short of asking “Why don’t you…?”, but that type of directional question is not part of the Reflecting Team, since that type of question or instruction can close the conversation space rather than open it. The interviewer must be attached to the interviewee and sincerely curious in order to be influential through the questions posed. This brings the interviewer into focus, which is the tradition of Appreciative Inquiry. 

A specific guide to the exercise is found here.

Background: 

The Reflecting Team builds upon a combination of theoretical contributions, including Appreciative Inquiry. The work of Tom Andersen (Andersen, Reflekterende Processer, 

2005) is central to the development of the reflection tools, as are Karl Tomms’ question types, which provide an important introduction to applying the technique. 

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VAT

VAT (Value Added Tax) 

 Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. Therefore, you may encounter students who need to know about the tax rules that apply to their particular type of artistic business. The rules for tax registration and payroll tax are part of the knowledge one needs when registering a business. Read more about sales tax, artist tax and payroll tax in CAKI’s Miniguide to VAT here 

Values in the Artistic Business

Values in the Artistic Business

Generally speaking, there are two types of values which will shape your work in the artistic business. First there are the values you represent as a person. These values influence things like the way you run your artistic business and how you position yourself in work relations. Then there are the values which create the broader perspective of your artistic business.  In the book Original — Personal Branding and Visibility, musician, entrepreneur and author Maiken Ingvordsen addresses the question of value in the artistic business very specifically. This article is based on excerpts of the book.

Even though we generally perceive and judge each other based on rather superficial considerations, it is still essential to create links between our actions, values, methods, image, the expectations of others, and the results we deliver in order to build trust and integrity in the artistic business. We can communicate our values to our customers, fans, art collectors stakeholders and collaborators in a variety of ways, for instance through action (or the absence of action), products, marketing, PR, presence on social media, live events, customer service, expression of opinions, etc. By the time an artistic business has become a recognized brand, people have formed expectations of what they are going to get before they get it — this applies to everything from a David Lynch film to an artist talk to an actor’s performance on stage or an album release.

As leader of an artistic business and practice, the values upon which the business is based come from who you are as a person, what you love about your job, and your strengths, qualifications and competencies. It can be a good exercise to write down which values you immediately identify with. Describing your values is a process you must work with over time. Your values may evolve and develop over the course of your life and career, but being able to put your calling into words based on your values as they are right now can be essential to fulfilling your potential to create a sustainable career. Maiken Ingvordsen has developed a series of questions we can answer in writing to find our motivation and thereby describe our values and what we want to contribute to others:

  1. What kind of work do you want to do professionally?
  2. What was your dream job before everything got serious?
  3. What makes you the most happy in your studies and/or professional life?
  4. You create experiences. Looking beyond your products and services, what are the experiences you give other people?
  5. What are your primary and secondary competencies? Primary competencies can be things like playing the piano and composing music while secondary competencies can include writing texts for others, practical tasks and project management.
  6. Acknowledgement — has someone thanked you for a service, experience, or product you provided, and what specifically did they mention?
  7. Yourself from outside: Ask three people — one professional relation, one personal friend and one family member — to describe you. What do they see as your primary abilities and talents — professionally and personally? Give yourself time to fully process their answers.

In her book, Maiken Ingvordsen also covers nine principles of personal branding. This article on value clarification is a summary of the chapters “Values and Expectations” (pp. 29-32) and “Your Calling” (pp. 52-54).

Maiken Ingvordsen: Original — Personal Branding og Synlighed, Lindhart and Ringhof, 2015.(only in Danish).

Value and relevance

Value and relevance

John Holden — on culture as public, commercial and homemade

Professor John Holden provides us with one perspective on how we value art and culture. Holden challenges the old culture model in which one spoke of elite or popular culture and high or low culture as opposite entities. Instead, he divides culture into state-funded culture, commercial culture, and what he calls homemade culture. Rather than seeing these as separate spheres, Holden believes they are woven together and tightly bound despite their differences.

Holden finds it crucially significant that the debate about quality has changed. Art has previously been naturally superior to popular culture, but now quality is discussed in every niche. According to Holden, artists now move between the funded, commercial and homemade sectors more freely than ever before.  For example, publicly funded orchestras now make commercial recordings to be sold at market conditions and boost their brands with YouTube videos designed to go viral, like the video in which orchestra members eat chili peppers while playing their instruments.

Both large and small producers of culture in Denmark often use a business model which involves not only fulfilling basic grant requirements of artistic relevance to society and fundraising for large portions of content, but also handling commercial sales which requires branding and visibility to consumers. In other words, there are many different streams of money flowing into the artistic business or the cultural institution. Therefore, the ability to ensure quality and relevance in an artistic business from an outside world-oriented perspective — which includes public as well as commercial culture — is now more valuable than ever.

References:

John Holden: “How we value arts and culture”. In the video, John Holden presents his perspective on the value of the creative and cultural worker in relation to society’s economy, interpersonal relations and individual identity. See the video here.

John Holden: “How we value arts and culture”. Article published in Asia Pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management, 2009. Get the article here.

Arts Council England – New 10-Years Strategy – from Great Art & Culture for Everyone to Let’s Create: https:// www.artscouncil.org.uk

Volunteering

Volunteering 

 Many students and professionals work with volunteers in their projects. Find inspiration in volunteer champion Esben Danielsen’s tips on how to maintain engagement in the volunteers on a project. Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide on working with volunteers in your projects here.

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The 7P Model: The Artist’s Narrative

(See also the section on the Artistic Narrative elsewhere in the wiki)

As a teacher, the 7P Model can be applied as a tool for trying out the student’s own stories or to have a conversation about personal stories. The 7P Model can create a perspective on how an artist can work actively with storytelling and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

 

The personal story is central for many artists. Some artists use their own lives in the creation of art, with clear impressions of it in the artistic process and the finished product. For others, the personal story is more of a background. We can work actively with stories in the arts business, thus also with how the artist’s personal story influences the way we perceive art. Narrative at the same time affects the ways an artist creates relationships in their own arts business, including in the communications and sales contexts.

 

In the discourse of social constructivism, stories are termed narratives. The 7P Model is a model used in social constructivism, where it is used to offer a language for storytelling. The model can create a perspective on how we can actively work with storytelling and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

 

According to M. Schnoor, narrative has a series of characteristics that make up the 7 Ps.

 

  1. Personal perspective: A narrative always has a narrator — it is always someone’s story. Psychologist Jerome Bruner calls this a story’s perspectivism. (Bruner, 1999)
  2. Public: A narrative always has one or several listeners. This is where the narrative’s relational dimension resides. The narrative is shaped by the relation between narrator and public or audience — someone who listens.
  3. Plot: A narrative is made up of a series of single events and actions which are linked together in a particular order in adherence with a plot. A narrative’s plot reveals what the story is about and can also be called “the red thread.”
  4. Punctuation: Narratives allow us to organize our experiences in chronological order. All narratives have a beginning (past), middle (present) and an end (future). It is not always clear which event makes up each of these components of the narrative. We create meaning in our experiences by selecting certain events over others, so something is pulled to the foreground instead of something else. Part of this selection process is what communication theorist Barnett Pearce calls punctuation — determining where the narrative begins and ends.
  5. Personae: A narrative always contains a group of characters who act in relation to each other. These are the personae. Some actors play leading roles while others play supporting ones. Once a character or action is determined by the story’s narrator, it will likely maintain its identity or function throughout the story. An interesting characteristic of narratives is, however, that they create connections between the exceptional and the ordinary (Bruner, 1999). In other words, narratives contribute to creating meaning in actions and behaviors that deviate from the predictable.
  6. Positioning: A story, because of its plot and the discourse from which the story springs, makes available certain positions. These positions help form both identity and room for possible actions.
  7. Point: A story always has a moral or point. The point in a story is the lesson the story wants to bring forward to the audience. The question is, how does one form a story so that others will be likely to want to listen and take an interest in the moral message?

Fig. 7P model:

Sources:

Text based on Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor

Meaning in Action, 1999, Jerome Bruner.

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