ENTREWIKI is a reference source of knowledge about entrepreneurship in the art schools.

Note: Wiki content is regularly updated

 ENTREWIKI compiles theories, methods, models, approaches and directions from both theory and practice which teachers and educators can use as a resource in their teaching. The wiki can be used by teachers as resources in your teaching, whether you are teaching core academic subjects or a specialised major programme or if you are within an artist development programme (KUA), a dedicated entrepreneurship programme or something altogether different. 

The wiki content is diverse. It also includes so-called hard skills, which apply to starting and running an arts business, such as a mini guide to artist sales tax, an overview of business types in Denmark, and information about contracts and agreements. 

Everything is organized alphabetically and is updated regularly. If you as a teacher feel that anything is missing from ENTRE WIKI, send us an e-mail and we’ll make sure to include the resources you are looking for.

 

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Agreements

As a teacher in one of the arts schools, you will often encounter students who need guidance regarding entering into contracts and agreements. In the CAKI Mini Guide – Contracts, Agreements and Negotiation you will find information and tips on what to be aware of when entering into a written contract. The mini guide also contains an array of templates to use for contracts and written agreements. 

Read more here

Appreciative Inquiry

Appreciative Inquiry is about the process of exploring and discovering what one as an artist or art student would like to have more of. Appreciative Inquiry is based on the idea that change and growth happen best by focusing on and exploring that which already works wellIn other words, in order to discern what it is that works and to develop this. 

Appreciative Inquiry further involves exploring and gaining knowledge about that which the student wishes to have more of. Appreciative Inquiry is originally developed by the American professor D. Cooperrider (Cooperrider et al., 2001). The approach is based on two main pillars. The first is appreciative, in the sense of valuing: confirming the valuable and reinforcing that which gives life and meaning. The second is inquiry, understood as exploration, asking questions, building learning and being open to seeing possibilities.  

 Theorist P. Lang writes, “Behind every problem is a frustrated dream – and the dream came first!” (P. Lang according to Schnoor, 2009, p. 65). Lang encourages us to focus on the dream and follow it on the basic idea that human beings thereby develop more positively and in the direction of a promising vision of the future. This is called the heliotropic principle (Greek: helios = light, trope = growth) (Cooperrider et al., 2001) (M. Schnoor, 2009). 

Appreciative Inquiry’s approach is inquisitive, and the construction of the questions is completely central to determining the answers we receive. Another theorist, Barnett Pearce, is in line with Lang, but sees it from a slightly different angle: “AI (Appreciative Inquiry) contains at its foundation the art in practice of being able to formulate questions which support a system’s ability to understand, anticipate and promote positive potential (…) The questions asked of a human system will lay the groundwork for the direction in which the system will develop.” (Barrett & Fly, 2005, p. 36; in B. Pearce, 2007. More from Pearce, see also the CMM Model in ENTREWIKI). 

Appreciative Inquiry opposes the more traditional examination methods in which examination and intervention are two separate processes. Every examination or learning process is an influence (simultaneity principle). Questions create thoughts, ideas and language which affect for example the student and their perception of reality.  Specific questions focus our attention in certain directions, which is why it becomes important in an appreciative perspective that one as leader or teacher carefully consider what one is examining, and how it can function in the concrete context  

(Haselbo & Lyngaard, 2007 according to Schnoor, 2009).  

4D Model 

[Chosen Area of Development] 

  1. Identify the successful and valuable 
  2. Create a shared vision of the desired future 
  3. Create clarity about the challenges and obtainable future 
  4. Experiment with new actions 

Sources 

Narrative Organizational Development – Forming Shared Meaning and Action, Michala Schnoor, Dansk Psykologisk forlag, 2009, p. 57-70 

Communication and Creation of Social Worlds, W. Barnett Price, Dansk Psykologisk forlag, 2007 

Artist Statement

An Artist Statement is a relatively short text that you write as an introduction to your practice and work.

The text is aimed at both industry and the public, and it serves as an aid to others’ encounter with you and your work. It can be used on websites, in applications, as an introduction to the CV, in publications, in connection with PR work and other places where a practice or an artistry can be presented in writing in a short format.

 

Artist VAT

Artist VAT can be applied to certain original art works, productions and services. Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. Therefore, you may encounter students who need knowledge about the tax rules that apply to their particular type of artistic business. The rules for tax registration and payroll tax are part of the knowledge one needs when registering a business.

Read more about sales tax, artist tax and payroll tax in CAKI’s Miniguide here.

Artistic narrative

(See also the section on the 7P Model elsewhere in the wiki)

For many artists, their personal story and life experiences have a clear impression on the artistic process or the artistic product. For others, the personal story is more of a background for their practice. As a teacher, the 7P Model can be applied as a tool for trying out the student’s own stories or to have a conversation about personal stories. The 7P Model can create a perspective on how an artist can work actively with storytelling and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

The artistic narrative therefore also has an impact on the possibilities the artist has for creating relationships in or speaking about their artistic practice and business, because regardless of whether or not the artist uses their story, it still affects the way we perceive the work and/or artist. With this as a starting point, it will always be relevant for the artist to develop the knowledge of how a narrative practice can develop in the artistic business.

“(…) A story is not just a story. It is in itself a localized action, an expressive performance. It works in the direction of creating, maintaining or changing the world of social relations.”  Social Construction – Entering the Dialogue, 2004, Gergen/Gergen

In the narrative practice, storytelling is experienced as a activity of creating something. It is where members of the organisation or group create the social world through the stories that they tell. In other words, one creates reality in the language one uses, and this reality stays alive and circulates through stories. According to psychologist Harlene Andersen, language has a creating energy:

“‘Language is not innocent!’ Every time we tell a story, we bring forward a special reality while pushing many other possible realities to the background.” Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor

Identity as Social Construct

In the perspective of the narrative, identity is understood more as a relation than as something individual. The word identity implies a social process more than an individual nature: When we identify something, we give it an identity. This is a departure from the traditional cultural perspective that we as humans each have a unique, stable and cohesive “personality” which determines how we think and act. It is more an action that creates something. It is an expression of a person’s position or point of view more than an expression of a truth in itself.

“A person’s success in maintaining a given self-assessment depends on others’ willingness to play out certain pasts in relation to him/her. All of us are ‘woven into’ others’ historical constructions, just as they are in ours.” Gergen/Gergen, 2004

This means that the artist actively works with creating relationships and worlds through storytelling. If one follows the narrative view on identity, it offers a position for the artist in which the artist can adopt a more relational role in which the artist can adopt a more relational role than has traditionally been practiced in the artistic business

Characteristics of a story: The 7 Ps

The 7P Model offers us a language for storytelling. The model can create a perspective on how we can actively work with storytelling, and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

According to M. Schnoor, narrative has a series of characteristics that make up the 7 Ps

1. Personal perspective: A narrative always has a narrator — it is always someone’s story. Psychologist Jerome Bruner calls this a story’s perspectivism. (Bruner, 1999)

2. Public: A narrative always has one or several listeners. This is where the narrative’s relational dimension resides. The narrative is shaped by the relation between narrator and public or audience — someone who listens.

3. Plot: A narrative is made up of a series of single events and actions which are linked together in a particular order in adherence with a plot. A narrative’s plot reveals what the story is about and can also be called “the red thread.”

4. Punctuation: Narratives allow us to organise our experiences in chronological order. All narratives have a beginning (past), middle (present) and an end (future). It is not always clear which event makes up each of these components of the narrative. We create meaning in our experiences by selecting certain events over others, so something is pulled to the foreground instead of something else. Part of this selection process is what communication theorist Barnett Pearce calls punctuation — determining where the narrative begins and ends.

5. Personae: A narrative always contains a group of characters who act in relation to each other. These are the personae. Some actors play leading roles while others play supporting ones. Once a character or action is determined by the story’s narrator, it will likely maintain its identity or function throughout the story. An interesting characteristic of narratives is, however, that they create connections between the exceptional and the ordinary (Bruner, 1999). In other words, narratives contribute to creating meaning in actions and behaviors that deviate from the predictable.

6. Positioning: A story, because of its plot and the discourse from which the story springs, makes available certain positions. These positions help form both identity and room for possible actions.

7. Point: A story always has a moral or point. The point in a story is the lesson the story wants to bring forward to the audience. The question is, how does one form a story so that others will be likely to want to listen and take an interest in the moral message?

Fig. 7P model: 

Sources:

  • Text based on Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor
  • Meaning in Action, 1999, Jerome Bruner
  • Social Construction – Entering the Dialogue, 2004, Gergen/Gergen
Artistic Business

“Artistic Business” is the title of one of the themes in the ENTRE PROGRAM, a program we offer to teachers at art schools. One of the focuses of “Artistic Business” is how to build an artistically and economically sustainable business. Read more about the program here.

Artistic Citizenship

Artistic Citizenship is in focus on several of the higher artistic educations and appears etc. in the strategy for the Royal Academy of Music and the Rhythmic Conservatory of Music has in 2020 established a research centre for artistic citizenship. In ENTRE, which is the art school’s joint program, for the development of entrepreneurship as a field of knowledge, artistic citizenship is also a theme. In this article, you can read more about what is meant by artistic citizenship and where the concept comes from.

The Actant Model

The actant model is an analysis model. It provides an overview of the most important people and their relationship to each other in a story.

The word ‘actant’ comes from Latin, where ‘actus’ means action. An actant is one who acts. The actant model is a model where we get an overview of who is acting in the story. In the model, there are six actants in total. The actant model was originally developed to analyze folk tales. We can also use it when we need to analyze other kinds of stories, such as films. The actant model is generally best used for the analysis of films with external conflicts.

The actant model is based on the narrative’s main character (the subject) and the person’s project, i.e. battle or mission to achieve its goal (the object). The protagonist’s project is the most important thing in the story, and what the story is about.

However, the model can also be an effective tool for initiating development processes through narrative scenarios. The special strength of the actantial model is that it serves as a checklist of the key players of the project while creating a coherent picture of relationships, functions and possible actions. In short, the actantial model can be used as a tool for identifying possible development strategies, planning projects and communication.

The participant model consists of 6 roles, which are denoted actants:

  • Subject – Who is the “main character”?
  • Object – The subject always has a project, a goal or something that he or she wants.
  • Opponent – Who or what tries to prevent the subject from getting the object?
  • Helper – Who or what helps the subject to get the object?
  • Sender – Who or what gives the object away?
  • Receiver – Who or what gets the item in the end?

The actants are placed onto three axes:

  • Project axis – Displays the subject (main character) and the object (goal of the main character).
  • Conflict axis – The conflict axis shows the helper and the opponent who are respectively trying to help and to prevent the subject from succeeding.
  • Communication axis – The end of the story is shown with the sender handing over the object to the receiver (who is often the same as the subject).

By placing the different stakeholders or concepts of your project into the 6 actant categories the logic of the development process can be clarified in a simple model, which can work as a guide for further development.

Sources:

J. Greimas (1973). Actants, Actors, and Figures. In: On Meaning: Selected Writings in Semiotic Theory. Trans. Paul J. Perron and Frank H, Collins. Theory and History of Literature, 38. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, 1987. 106-120.

Most of the text comes from the Innovation site, where you can also download templates and exercises using the model.

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The Berkeley Method of Entrepreneurship

The method is based on the hypothesis that the mindset of an entrepreneur can be characterized by a set of behavioural patterns and that an inductive game-based teaching approach is a successful vehicle for introducing and re-enforcing these. The game-based teaching approach lets the students explore their current mindsets and compare them with those of successful entrepreneurs.

Read more here

Big Data

Since the amount of digital data from systems and social media is growing explosively, it may be appropriate to find methods and tools for processing large amounts of data. The term “big data” primarily refers to large amounts of data created by humans and systems. The distinguishing  characteristic of big data is a lack of structure where data comes from many different sources, making it very diverse. Therefore, much analysis is required to process the collected data. There are many different theories, methods, techniques and tools available in the area of big data. Read more here.

Brainstorming (Idea development)

Brainstorming is one of the most well-known methods of idea development. The method is especially useful in the creating phase because it promotes the creative flow of thought.

How to brainstorm:

1. Start with a focus question.

2. Set a time limit for the brainstorm. It can be one long period or several short sessions.

3. Even though brainstorming is unstructured, set clear guidelines for the process before you start. These can include:

  • All criticism is forbidden
  • All ideas are welcome
  • The more ideas, the better
  • Combining multiple ideas is encouraged
  • Ideas do not necessarily have to be realistic

4. Write ideas down on little pieces of paper

5. When the brainstorm is over, organize the pieces of paper into categories. Some may be about an idea’s form, others about content, target audience or activities.

Organizing the notes by type can help shed new light on each category. This is a good starting point for further work, for example evaluating and improving the idea.

For more information:

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/mindmap/

Sources: Idea development & Project management, 2021, CAKI

Brainwriting (Idea development)

Brainwriting is another method that is suited to the creative process. The method is an anonymous version of brainstorming and addresses several ideas at a time.

How to brain write:

1. The group is asked a focus question

2. Each person writes their answer anonymously

3. The ideas are collected in a pile

4. Each person takes an idea from the pile and has the following options;

  • Using the idea to generate another idea, which is written down and sent along.
  • Continuing to write about and develop or change the idea before sending it along.

5. The ideas are collected and sent along, and step 4 is repeated until you run out of time or ideas.

6. Everything is collected and evaluated.

For more information:

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/brainwriting/

Sources: Idea development & Project management, 2021, CAKI

Branding and the VCI Model

It can be significant for a young artist or teacher of entrepreneurship at an art school to work with the development of the artistic brand, since it is linked to concepts in the artistic process such as identity and vision. In this article, we have chosen to use principles from Mary Jo Hatch and Majken Schultz’s book Use Your Brand. The book covers a series of four models of branding mainly intended for large businesses and organizations, but it is our experience that these models can easily be applied to artistic and even solo businesses.

The book also contains a history of the concept of branding. Branding essentially began as a type of marketing designed to create and address the relationship between product and consumer. The second wave of branding is known as corporate branding, in which many activities become centralized in and around the business. The third wave of branding centers on network thinking and focuses to a large extent on stakeholders’ relationship to business (the artistic business, for example).

Branding is used as strategic positioning, which includes discovering or creating the properties which separate a brand from the competition. Brands should also be able to attract customers and appeal to stakeholders. It reminds them of why they are or should be part of the stakeholder community around the brand.

The VCI Model:

A main principle of Use Your Brand is that branding cannot succeed or function optimally unless there is a link between the strategic vision, the internal organizational culture, and stakeholders’ image of the artistic business. This is called a corporate brand, which is what we will call the whole artistic business. In every successful corporate brand, there is a noticeable link between the leadership’s vision of what they hope to achieve in the future (the strategic vision), the knowledge and beliefs of the employees (embedded in the company’s culture), and the things the external stakeholders expect of or associate with the business (their various images of the business). The founding principle is thus the link between Vision, Culture, and Image (the VCI Model). The more the vision, culture and image are united, the stronger the brand will be (figure 1.1). Conversely, a lack of consistency or too large of a gap between vision, culture and image signal a less than optimal corporate brand.

 

One can imagine the strategic vision, organizational culture, and the stakeholders’ expectations as pieces in a jigsaw puzzle. When spread out on a table, there is no apparent link between the pieces. Once they are put in their correct places, however, they create an integrated, expressive and satisfying whole. This creates a strong company reputation while at the same time aligning the company’s actions with the brand’s promises to all the stakeholders that make up the company. To find out if your corporate brand suffers from a lack of consistency, you may ask yourself the questions illustrated in figure 1.2..

 

Figure 1: Organizational identity

Strategic vision

Organizational culture

Image among stakeholders

Figure 2: Strategic vision:

  • Are your vision and culture sufficiently different from those of the competitors?
  • Is the company’s vision an inspiration to all of its subcultures?
  • Does the company put into practice the values it preaches?
  • Gaps between vision and culture
  • Gaps between vision and image
  • Gaps between culture and image

Organizational culture:

  • What is the company’s image among stakeholders?
  • How are the employees and stakeholders integrated?
  • Are the employees interested in how customers perceive the company?
  • Image among stakeholders
  • Do you know what the stakeholders expect of the company?
  • Are the company’s visions and values attractive to stakeholders, and do they support them?

 

Figures based on Use Your Brand, pp. 32-33.

Source: Mary Jo Hatch and Majken Schultz, Use Your Brand, Gyldendal Business, 2009

Business model

When you build a business, you should make sure that you have a variety of sources of income that generate revenue in the business. You can do this by developing your portfolio.

In a business with an artistic or cultural purpose at the outset, the portfolio will most likely contain activities that create income as well as activities that break even or even require investment to be realized.

Your portfolio is based on your professional expertise and your interests as well as the need to create an income that can support you. Creating a sustainable practice and business for yourself requires that your business creates enough revenue to pay your business expenses while also providing you with an income since you must be able to afford food, rent and other basic expenses.

Not every activity will make an income for you, but realizing a basic income to support yourself should be a goal of your business. This means you should determine which parts of your portfolio are profitable.

Most people with a business in the cultural sector can have a broad and versatile portfolio – from producing original artworks and/or productions to consulting and teaching, which are some of the most common examples. The variety of tasks will depend on your specific artistic field as well as your professional profile. In the beginning, you may have to perform some tasks or say yes to jobs that are not part of your dream scenario. This is normal, since building a sustainable profession takes time.

Think about which products and services in your practice can generate an income and then combine them into a revenue-generating portfolio. Since you may have activities in your portfolio, which do not lead to income and perhaps even is an expense, you should arrange your work so the profitable activities pay for the non-profitable activities.

You decide how your portfolio should look. During the establishing phase of your professional life as self-employed, it can be wise to focus on the activities which make money and work toward building a sustainable business around them. That way, you can stabilize your economy, which will give you freedom in the long run.

Do a thought experiment where you imagine all the possibilities of where your practice can lead. Think about all the products, works and services you can create or provide. Be creative!

Model: BUSINESS MODEL

The model has been developed by Maiken Ingvordsen and Pernille Skov as part of The Art of Start Up (2018)

Business Model Canvas

Business Model Canvas is a model that can provide an overview of the artistic business as a whole. It can be used in individual artistic practices as well as large cultural businesses. The model is a communicative and analytical tool which allows us to discover and explore the elements of a business, for example, the artistic and commercial partnerships and how these interact with the other building blocks of the business. The model works well in teaching entrepreneurship, but it is also a useful tool in the artistic development business, for example when working with students to explore and develop the many ways the artistic practice might play out in a given situation.

The model is developed by theorist Alexander Osterwalder. Osterwalder looks at a company’s business model as a description of how an organization or business creates, delivers and captures value. He illustrates this approach in what he calls the business model canvas.

The approach is presented in the publication Business Model Generation. Here Osterwald describes how a company’s activities can be divided into a series of building blocks which make up the company’s basic activities. The building blocks are: partners, activities, resources, offer of value, customer relationship, distribution channels, expenses and cash flow.

Business Model Canvas is in its design split into a left side which is internally oriented around expenses (cost) and a right side which is customer oriented around value. For example, if a business wants to reach customers through new channels (a building block on the right side), partners (a building block on the left side) will presumably change. Perhaps you decide to have your business shift from using live channels (exhibitions, concerts, cinema screenings, etc.) to online distribution. The change in distributional or promotional format presumably means you will need to find new partnerships that can help your business move forward.

In short, Business Model Canvas is a model that helps us explore and develop our business model in a systematic way.

Read more about the approach in the book Business Model Generation. A free download of 72 pages of the book is available at this link. You can download the template for Business Model Canvas here.

Business Model Generation

In 2010, Alexander Osterwalder published the book Business Model Generation, which focuses on the way we work with business models. The education system in particular has embraced Business Model Generation.

The book Business Model Generation describes how a company’s activities can be divided into a series of building blocks. The approach is a strategic and analytical tool which allows us to discover and explore the elements of a business, for example the artistic and commercial partnerships and how these interact with the other building blocks of the business.

The elements of the business are defined by:

Partners, activities, resources, offer of value, customer relationship, distribution channels, expenses and cash flow. Business Model Canvas is the model for this approach. The model is in its design split into a left side which is internally oriented around expenses (cost) and a right side which is customer oriented around value. For example, if a business wants to reach customers through new channels (a building block on the right side), partners (a building block on the left side) will presumably change. Perhaps you decide to have your business shift from using live channels (exhibitions, concerts, cinema screenings, etc.) to online distribution. The change in distributional or promotional format presumably means you will need to find new partnerships that can help your business move forward. In short, Business Model Canvas is a model that helps us explore and develop our business model in a systematic way.Read more about the approach in the book Business Model Generation. A free download of 72 pages of the book is available at this link. You can download the template for Business Model Canvas here.

Business registration

It is free to register a personally owned business. We cover the process step by step in CAKI’s Miniguide to Registration of a Personally Owned Business. Read more here.

Business Start

Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. You may therefore encounter students who need information about starting their own business.

CAKI’s Handbook: Startup is written for the full spectrum of artistic fields and business types — from soloists and production companies to one-person businesses and Ltd’s. The handbook covers all the general questions you need to consider when starting a business of any size.

Get the handbook here.

Business Types

There are many different business types, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The most important thing is selecting the type that fills your needs in terms of what you do in your business.

Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide to Business Types here.

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Changeboards

Changeboards is a visualisation tool that can be used to support and structure the development, evaluation and communication of user-oriented concepts. The tool can be used for concept development after the initial idea development.

Changeboards visualises six user scenarios that, when combined, create the change scenario of the concept. In order to create Changeboards please answer the following questions:

  • Target group: Who is the target group (users) and what characterises them?
  • Need: What does the target group need to be solved? Why is it important for this group to have it solved? What is the purpose of the concept?
  • Solution: How does the concept solve the problem of the target group? What is the concept’s core experience? Why is the concept’s core experience relevant for the target group?
  • Benefits for the target group: What are the particular benefits for the target group (users)? Why is the target group interested in your particular concept? Does the target group have a reason to return to your concept?
  • Benefits for customers: What are the particular benefits for the client/customer? Why is your concept better than other similar concepts?

For the students to satisfactorily answer the above questions they need to work visually with storytelling scenarios because the visualisations can reveal the atmosphere, challenges and beliefs much more clearly than words. Please use the template in the column to the right on this page.

  1. Scenario – visualise the target group as a typical user.
  2. Scenario – visualise the user’s need.
  3. Scenario – visualise a solution that suits the need.
  4. Scenario – visualise the user’s use of the solution.
  5. Scenario – visualise how the user benefits from the solution.
  6. Scenario – visualise the significant changes and consequences that the solution has on the user’s daily life.

Developed by Katalyst, Faculty of Humanities, University of Copenhagen. Based on the NABC principals, Stanford Research Institute.

Sourced from https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/changeboards/

 

Chaordic organization

The mix of chaos and order is often described as a harmonious coexistence displaying characteristics of both, with neither chaotic nor ordered behaviour dominating. The chaordic principles have also been used as guidelines for creating human organizations – business, nonprofit, government and hybrids—that would be neither centralized nor anarchical networks.

Characteristics of Chaordic Organizations:

  • Based on clarity of shared purpose and principles
  • Self-organizing and self-governing in whole and in part
  • Exist primarily to enable their constituent parts
  • Powered from the periphery, unified from the core
  • Durable in purpose and principle, malleable in form and function
  • Equitably distribute power, rights, responsibility and rewards
  • Harmoniously combine cooperation and competition
  • Learn, adapt and innovate in ever-expanding cycles
  • Compatible with the human spirit and the biosphere
  • Liberate and amplify ingenuity, initiative and judgment
  • Compatible with and foster diversity, complexity and change
  • Constructively utilize and harmonize conflict and paradox
  • Restrain and appropriately embed command and control methods.

The text is sourced from the CIO Wiki: https://cio-wiki.org/wiki/Chaordic_Organization#cite_ref-1

Read more about the characteristics of chaordic organizations here

CMM Model

The CMM (Coordinated Management of Meaning) Model is developed by two American professors of communication, Barnett Pearce and Vernon Cronen.

The CMM Model addresses how we as artists can make a difference through our choice of communication. Further, the model focuses on the idea that, through our speech acts, we can participate in changing the world.

The model can be used to clarify for example which culture an artist is speaking to or belongs to and how contextual force influences that. Conversely, the model also reveals how our speech acts, episodes, relationships and self-narratives have implicative force (consequences) and thereby influence a culture.

A focus on the contextual force allows for reflection and meaning making by constantly directing our attention outward toward the influences the students experience through cultural discourse, which affect their self-stories, relationships, episodes and speech acts. This makes it possible to have a reflexive relationship to media, literature and other materials expressed by authorities with knowledge and power in art and culture.  

 

A basic principle of the CMM Model is that there are always many contexts at play in a conversation. Many misunderstandings arise because we usually take it for granted that the person we are talking to is operating in the same contexts as we are.

Pearce and Cronen say themselves that, with their model, they are introducing a communications perspective on our actions. It is a perspective which enables us to look at communication rather than through it.

The model relates itself to so-called dialogic communication. Pearce and Cronen draw upon appreciative inquiry to delve into the speech acts which constitute (as basic units) our sentence constructions and their combinations.

Speech acts create episodes and relationships which affect our narratives (self-stories) and the culture around us. We thereby become aware of our linguistic acts right down to the construction of types of questions and their expected resulting answers along with where we can act differently in communication. (Moltke and Molly, editors, 2009, pp. 245-247) 

References 

Barnett Pearce: Communication and the Making of Social Worlds, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2007 

Hanne V. Moltke and Asbørn Molly, editors: Systematic Coaching: A Primer. Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009 

Talk: Barnett Pearce on Coordinated Management of Meaning:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HvME-Y5A3Og 

Communicating in writing - 10 tips
10 tips for clear, concrete and energetic writing

1.Write to your receiver

Your language depends on your receiver. If your communication is aimed at a partner or colleague who’s already familiar with your project and its terminology, you can use a more internal and theoretical language than if you are communicating with others who are not familiar with your project or your subject. Only use theoretical and technical terms if you are certain your receiver understands them.

ASK YOURSELF:

What prerequisites does my receiver have for understanding me? Is the receiver already familiar with me or my project?

2. Make your writing easy to read

Avoid long sentences, convoluted formulations and passive voice. Use periods; divide the text into short paragraphs, and only make one point per sentence.

Avoid writing something like this:

“With a mixed crowd of regular users, guests in open workshops and attendees in international artist-in-residence workshops, the old brickworks will once again come abuzz with life, entrepreneurship and creativity.”

Instead, write:

”The old brickworks will once again buzz with life, an entrepreneurial spirit and creativity. This will happen as regular users, guests in open workshops and attendees in international artist-in-residence workshops occupy the brickworks.”

3. Be specific. Use details

Specific details make the project tangible and understandable to the reader. Not all details ought to be included. Choose the ones that are particularly telling of your project and which can help emphasise your message.

4. Need to know vs. nice to know

Prioritise, prioritise, prioritise! Your receiver doesn’t need to know everything about your project. If you shower people with too much information, your core message will get lost in the process. Cut to the bone.

5. Avoid filler words and blah blah blah

Delete redundant words and phrases such as ‘really’, ‘many different’, and ‘in relation to’.These words only make your point fuzzier and your text less clear.

Avoid writing something like this:

“The overall goal of the communication efforts is the involvement of many different stakeholders and target groups that will serve as a pivot to ensure the exhibition is highly successful.”

Instead, write:

“The purpose of communication is to involve stakeholders so the exhibition can be successful.”

6. Show, don’t tell

Good examples and illustrative writing helps make your project tangible and engages the recipient.

Avoid writing something like this:

“The exhibition is an atmospheric universe of various aesthetically linked works.”

Write:

“The audience steps into a darkened gallery where six white marble sculptures are lit by separate floor lamps. When the audience approaches the sculptures, the light changes colour from white to red while the room is simultaneously filled with smoke and the sound of a bass increases in volume.”

7. Appeal to reason and emotions

Make sure to give your recipient good arguments and appeal to their senses and emotions. For example, you could bolster your arguments with facts, statistics, authorities and experts, while employing illustrative language with good, recognisable examples stir emotions in your receivers.

8. Use direct speech

“Did you see that?!” “No, what?!” Direct speech can make the text come to life and stirs the reader’s curiosity. It also helps using direct speech in headings and subheadings.

9. Surprise

Employ humour, controversial claims or an unusual angle. This could include funny, surprising statistics or juxtaposing two things that one wouldn’t usually link together, such as flying pigs, beautiful monsters, etc.

10. Remember to proofread!

Typos, grammatical errors and misplaced commas leave the receiver with an impression that you are sloppy. And if you do not spend time on your writing, why should your receiver spend time reading it? Always proofread, and if you can, have a second pair of eyes read it over.

TIP:

If you are in doubt about where to place commas and periods, read the text out loud to yourself. This is often a good way to tell where to insert breaks and periods.

Get the handbook.

Sources: PR & Communication, 2020, CAKI.

Communication

Set a goal for yourself

Generally, your communication efforts as an artist can be based on one of two factors: your artistic profile or your project.

Your artistic profile

where the focus is on you as an artist. Your communication is not limited to a specific time period but occurs continuously through your choices in relation to how you make your work visible as well as on blogs, websites, Facebook, etc.

A project

where your focus is on raising awareness of an artistic project, e.g. a concert, performance, film or exhibition. Your communication is designed as a process that unfolds over a certain period of time.

Set a goal for yourself

Communicating inherently comes with the implication that you want to achieve something through communicating. It could be that you want an audience to attend your show, get your project mentioned in the media or to get more followers on Facebook. In other words, you have a goal for your communication. Strategic communication is about moving from one position to another:

A → B

From your current position/your reputation/your project’s current level of publicity (A), to a better position/an improved reputation/more publicity of your project (B).

ASK YOURSELF

What is the purpose of my communication?

Where do I want to end up?

What do I want to achieve?

(B)

What is my starting point?

Do I already have a profile or brand I want to strengthen? What resources are at my disposal?

(A)

Keep in mind that good goals are ambitious, realistic and require commitment. In order to help you achieve the goals you have set, it can be very helpful to set a (long-term) plan that you can follow. Later in the book, we provide you with a template on how to lay out such a plan.

Your situation

Once you have formulated your goal, you need to find the path that leads to it; making the right choices and decisions that help you get there. All communication consists of five components:

  • Topic
  • Receiver
  • Language
  • Medium
  • Sender

These five components are interlinked in what is called the communication situation in technical terms. You should therefore consider all those components before laying down your communication plan. Changing one component may have implications on the other components, changing the way in which people perceive your project. In the next few pages, we will review the five components and provide you with some exercises that can help you shape each component appropriately in relation to your situation.

Topic

Far too much communication ends up becoming too abstract and intangible for the recipient. This is often due to the fact that the sender has not clearly determined the core of the artistic idea or creative concept before communicating about it. The quote below comes from the introduction of a project description in an application. But what is the project about? Why is the format unique, as they start off by claiming? And what artistic perspectives, performances, discussions and workshops are they referring to?

“The project is a unique format of non-formal education. Students will bring their own unique artistic and generational perspective to various performances, discussions and workshops; the question of working with non-material art in the time of total production will be discussed from different perspectives.”

It’s fine for the introduction to arouse curiosity in the mind of the receiver, but in the above example, the questions result in confusion and uncertainty rather than sparking interest and curiosity. And that simply won’t do. Before you begin communicating your project, you should understand your project and its essence, and you should be able to put it into words. It’s often very helpful to write a thorough project description that describes the purpose of the project and defines its content, the receiver and the form of communication.

Make project description

If you haven’t already got a project description, we recommend that you make one. In CAKI Handbook ‘Project Management and Idea Development’, we guide you through the process of writing a project description.

 

Get the handbook here. 

Communication & Media
Medi

Communication and PR are more than just press releases and ads. It can also include events, social media, lectures, blog posts, happenings, etc. In art and culture projects, there is ample opportunity to set up creative and alternative communication channels. For instance, you may want to mark the start of an exhibition with a happening or performance, or perhaps a short teaser film. Alternatively, you could write a blog post about the process from start to finish? Make sure to set aside time for idea development to find the right way to communicate your project.

Choice of medium

On the opposite page, you will find a list of different types of media and communication channels. This list is intended to serve as inspiration. Only use the media and channels that make sense to you, your project and your target groups.

Exercises for the evaluation phase

Media and communication channels

  • Exhibition opening, release party, premiere, etc.
  • Lectures
  • PR events
  • Rehearsal performances/concerts/etc.
  • Sales events and fairs
  • Festivals
  • Oral pitching – e.g. to companies or strategic partners
  • Events hosted by others. Should you and your project be present at other events than your own, such as art fairs, Roskilde Festival or CPH:DOX?

Media & advertising

  • Advertisements – magazines, newspapers, digital, etc.
  • Advertising spots – TV, radio, magazines, etc.
  • PR
  • Interviews and profiles
  • Media collaborations, e.g. with established media outlets or blogs

Digital

  • Website
  • Blog
  • Newsletter
  • Freebees – give parts of your project away for free as an appetiser
  • Social media (Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat, Twitter, LinkedIn, Tumblr, etc.)
  • Apps
  • Video
  • GIFs
  • Podcast
  • Competitions
  • Crowdfunding – e.g. Kickstarter campaigns

Adapt your communication to the medium

Always adapt your communication to the medium.

For example, if you want to make an oral pitch to a number of potential partners, you need to factor in their short-term memory, using simple language and short sentences and repeating your points.

On the other hand, if you want to use Twitter as your primary communication channel, make sure to familiarise yourself with hashtag culture and get comfortable with articulating yourself in 140 characters or less.

ASK YOURSELF

Are there any special circumstances, traditions or rules I should take into account in relation to this communication channel?

Is it up close or remote communication?

Is the channel formal or informal?

How do I best disseminate my message through this specific channel?

Get the handbook.

Sources: ´PR & Communication, 2020, CAKI

Communities of Practice

Etienne Wenger’s idea of communities of practice focuses on how we as artists can see ourselves as active participants in social communities.

There are communities of practice everywhere, according to Wenger. We all have an affiliation to communities of practice: at home, at work, in school, through our hobbies — we belong to many different communities of practice at any given time. They can be both formal and informal. As artists, we are part of a wide range of communities of practice, including fellow students in a class, work groups and production teams — all of which may be formally structured, and informal groups such as roommates, fellow diners in the cafeteria, or even the smokers on the terrace.                                                     

When Wenger uses the expression “communities of practice,” he uses it as an introduction to a broader terminology for understanding learning. Wegner does not make any distinction between theory and practice with regard to human experience and knowledge: “The relation between practice and theory is always complex and interactive. Meaning exists not as something fixed, but in the dynamic relation, and is therefore subject to change,” says Wenger.

Practice constitutes our actions in a historic and social context, and engagement in practice always involves the whole person and both the action and the knowledge simultaneously.

“We all have our own theories and ways of understanding the world, and our communities of practice are places where we develop, negotiate and share them” (Wenger, 2004, p. 62).

Wenger focuses on learning as social participation — being an active participant in social communities, practicing and constructing identities in relation to these communities.

See and hear Etienne Wenger at the ENTRENord Conference, CAKI 2014 here.

Competence Wheel

Development of a competence profile

As an artist, it is central to be aware of your competencies and to be ready to develop the skills which need to be improved in order to develop your professional life.

Competence development is an ongoing process, and it is important to give yourself time for the process to unfold. You can use the competence wheel in different contexts by putting on different caps, for example: “my competencies as an artist”, “my competencies as a teacher”, “my competencies as a leader of artistic processes”, etc.

By filling in the competence wheel, you can get an overview of where you can develop your skills. Go through the wheel and tick the lines according to how developed your skills are. Think about where and how you can expand your skills in relation to your future professional life.

The competence wheel has been developed by business economist Jan Molin. Molin believes that only you can fill your competence wheel. Personality tests and profiles created by others will not necessarily reflect the reality you yourself experience.

Fill in the model

  • You place a cross on the line (e.g. the line for action competence). The closer you place the intersection to the centre, the less you assess your competencies. The further out of line, the higher the competence.
  • Assess your own competencies for all six areas of competencies. Then draw a line from the cross to cross. You will get your unique spider web in the chart.
  • Then make a document in which you describe why you have placed your competencies as you have in the diagram. Write 2-3 lines.
  • Now select 1 or 2 competencies that you will purposefully work on improving. You cannot develop many skills at the same time. Give yourself time to reflect on what you can do to improve e.g. technical competencies if that is the one you choose. Write 2-3 lines.

For example

Technical skills: I am considering how I as artistic director of a project can create better documentation of our work. What technical solutions are available? What does it cost? Is it something I myself can become good at? If not, who should do it?

Bring the model into play with fellow students, a teacher colleague or project partners. Then you get the opportunity to put words to your movement within a given field of competence and can get feedback when you have worked with the development.

Action skills

Is about being an active agent. Are you good at realizing your projects? To initiate artistic activities, projects and coordinate work tasks, finding partners and raise investment funds?

Are you outgoing and energetic? Can you turn thoughts into action? Do you work purposefully to achieve your goals?

What can you get better at – and how?

Reflective skills

Do you give yourself time to stop and think about the direction you are moving in?

Are you good at finding inspiration and researching in your artistic practice?

Can you see your actions in perspective? Can you have a dialogue with others about what it does? Does it make you act differently?

What can you get better at – and how?

Personal skills

This is about your personal development and your focus on yourself as an artist. This is where you look inwards and reflect on who you are professionally and what competencies and skills you would like to develop – e.g. your skills as reliable, conscientious, humorous or something completely different.

What can you get better at?

Interpersonal competencies

What are you good at in relation to your collaboration with other people?

Ex: are you aware of other people’s limit, are you open, empathetic, confrontational, conflict-seeking, reliable, good at giving space or do you prefer to be alone? Etc.

What can you get better at – and how?

Subject-specific competences

In relation to your artistic practise – what is your repertoire?

Are you good at: Expressing yourself artistically, specific artistic processes, rehearsing, reaching a goal, collaborating in the artistic space, perseverance, leadership, etc. What are your experiences?

What can you get better at – and how?

Technical skills

What technical tools and qualifications do you possess and which do you need? E.g. techniques, technical equipment, production tools, use of spreadsheets for budgets, communication tools? Do you have the programs needed to develop what you want – and do you master them so that you can put your subject-specific competencies into action?

What can you get better at – and how?

Read more here.

Source:  Carlshøj & Co, ‘Sådan udfylder du dit kompetencehjul’, 2019

Contracts

Many art students will probably already under their studies need to know how they enter a transaction or how to agree on a fair contract. This is because an oral agreement or a handshake is not always enough to avoid misunderstandings. In CAKI Miniguide – Contract negotiation for Artists we advise you to pay attention to a number of things when you ensure a written agreement. In the Miniguides there are a number of templates of contracts and agreements which you can freely use. 

Read more here.

Costumer base

Thinking about who is going to pay for your products or services is key if you want to be able to support yourself from the income in your business.

Many artists and creatives do not think about their customer or target group in the creative phase of making their art or developing products or services, and that is okay. But in order for you to make money from your work, sooner or later you will have to think about and communicate with your customer base. That is the only way you can help them buy what you are selling.

The customer base and the primary target groups are those who will have a need fulfilled or get an advantage or benefit (e.g. aesthetic, sensual, experiential, practical or economically) by purchasing, using or experiencing your product or service.

A secondary target group can be individuals, organisations or companies that have an interest in having your product or service reaching a target group. They are buying what you are selling but on behalf of someone else. In some situations, they will become the primary target group. For instance, if you are fundraising, foundations can become a primary target group. Or if you are selling events for kids, the parents become an important target group.

MODEL: Custome base.

Finding your customers via your value proposition

Your value proposition is what makes people or companies turn to you and not to someone else. The value proposition is composed of a selection of products and services, and sometimes also of your profile as an artist or creative – based on the fact that there is only one you.

As such, the value proposition creates value via a mix of elements. Values might be qualitative (e.g. design, status or risk reduction) or quantitative (e.g. price or speed).

Here are some examples of what values could be (not an exhaustive list):

Newness – customisation – design – brand/status – performance-price – accessibility – cost reduction – risk reduction – usability – convenience 

CV

A CV is an overview of a person’s professional experience. When you apply for funding, grants, scholarships, education or a job, you always include a CV in your application. While the application usually describes your motivation or project, your CV quickly and precisely shows your educational background and professional experience. The same goes for the CV you post on your website or as part of your online portfolio or LinkedIN profile – here your CV also needs to quickly and clearly state your educational background and your professional experience.

Fundamental considerations:

  • Start your CV with your name and contact information. You can also include a portrait photograph, but it is not required. If you use a picture, consider the photograph’s appearance. If you choose a conventional portrait shot, always be sure the photo is sharp and in focus. If you choose a less traditional portrait format, you can choose a more experimental visual style.
  • Your CV should always include the category headings Education and Professional Experience. Consider which section the recipient will read first, and present them thereafter in chronological order. It is most common to put the education section first, since it is usually the shortest category.
  • In addition to your professional work, you can also include other relevant experience, such as having served on the board of directors of an association, volunteer work, etc.
  • Categories: If for example you have exhibited your work, performed concerts or have had works published, dedicate a special category to this. This can also be courses, tours abroad or other relevant qualifications you want the recipient to be aware of.
  • If you have a very extensive CV, it may be a good idea to curate the content if you are targeting a specific employer or collaborator. It should certainly include everything you are proud of, but you can still be strategic and tailor your CV, for instance by highlighting assignments in the areas you want to work in in the future.
  • Always list items in a category in chronological order beginning with the most recently started activity. If the activity is finished or you already know when it will be finished, write the start year and the expected end year. If the project is not finished, keep the end year open, but still put the start year first.
  • Describe your experiences, but keep it short! If you only write a job title, it can be difficult for the recipient reading your CV to know exactly what you did in a specific position or assignment. It will therefore be useful to include a short description (a minimum of one line) of exactly what you did and what your assignments consisted of. You may choose to write it in keywords to keep it short.
  • Use several different CVs. When using the CV in a job application, try as much as possible not to exceed one page. In an application process, you want to give the recipient a quick overview of your experience by showing the best of what you have done. In contrast, when using a CV on your website or LinkedIn profile, you can include more experience and use the CV to keep track of what you have done. When using your CV for artistic collaborations, you might want to put the primary focuse on your merits and experiences with your art form.
  • Consider your writing style and your layout. Your writing style and layout can say a lot about who you are, so consider what style is best for the application. If you want to be able to use your CV in several different situations, choose formal language and fonts.
  • Write correctly! You must ALWAYS proofread your CV, and you should also ask another person to proofread it for you. Your CV should be completely free of spelling mistakes and grammatical errors.
  • Use air in your layout. Make sure your CV is easy to read for the eyes. Use margins and line spacing to create a simple overview. Keep the sections aligned to avoid disturbing the natural readability.

Creative alternatives and platforms:

It can be a good idea to use creative formats and platforms to present your CV. For instance, you can combine your CV with a portfolio, sound files, film or a digital platform. Just keep in mind that it should be consistent with the way you want to be perceived. If you aren’t sure about how to proceed with your CV, then stop and reflect before you continue. You can also ask a peer to have a look at it to get their opinion.

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Dialogic Communication

Barnett Pearce provides the field of artistic entrepreneurship with a useful supplement to the more instrumental “transmissions theory of communication.” The instrumental tradition is prominent in for example how-to literature with its fixed templates for communication and marketing on various platforms.

Pearce’s theory of communication can be viewed as challenging the conception of communication as the transmission of information from one individual to another, which Pearce calls the transmission model. It is most effective when the message clearly and precisely expresses the meaning intended by the sender and is interpreted in a way which closely matches that meaning. Pearce believes this often fails because language’s meaning is negotiated in relationships (B. Pearce, 2007, p.39). 

Instead, Pearce presents a social constructive model, or what he calls dialogic communication. Here communication is more a way to create the social world and is always practiced together with others. Rather than “What did you mean by that?” the more relevant questions are “What are we doing together?”, “How do we do it?” and “How can we create better social worlds?” (Pearce, 2007, pp. 39-40) 

Pearce and Cronen, who together developed the CMM Model (see elsewhere in ENTREWIKI), also draw upon Appreciative Inquiry. In the CMM theory (Coordinated Management of Meaning), the two authors delve into our speech acts, which constitute (as basic units) our sentence constructions and their combinations. The effects of speech acts are called language’s implicative force (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 245). 

Speech acts create episodes and relationships which affect our narratives (self-stories) and the culture around us. Conversely, context affects us (contextual force, as Pearce calls it) in such a way that the culture affects our self-stories, which in turn affect relationships, and speech acts (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 247). 

“We are inclined to see what we know, rather than the other way around, and our ability to latch onto bifurcation points and make smart decisions about how we should proceed at these bifurcation points requires sharpened conceptual tools for understanding communication.” (Pearce, 2007, p. 19) 

References:

Barnett Pearce: Communication and the Making of Social Worlds, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2007

Hanne V. Moltke and Asbjørn Molly, editors: Systemic Coaching: A Primer, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009

Domain theory (the communicative domains)

The domain theory is created by Peter Lang, Vernon Cronen and Martin Little based on the work of Humberto Maturana. When the domain theory is interpreted as a tool, it becomes a dialog tool that can be used to work with social relations in the artistic business. The tool clarifies the social and relational dimensions of the work and is especially applicable when treating complicated or sensitive topics in an artistic practice for example in the mental working environment. The domain tool structures the discussion of the topic and sets specific dialog rules which create confidence, transparency and openness to the different viewpoints.  

Introduction to Domain Theory

 Domains can be seen as communication “rooms” that one enters and exits through the conversation. Each room has its own unique language and logic which describe specific elements and angles of an issue. In other words, special codes of language and logic govern each domain (room). 

The domain theory is an attempt to clarify three separate logics which we use to see, understand and describe the world. The domains (logics) exist side by side in the conversation, but as a rule, one of the domains is dominant at a given time compared to the other two.  The three domains are the personal domain, the domain of production and the domain of reflection. 

The Personal Domain

The personal domain is the language designated by the participants’ values, morals and ethics. Here the participants cannot relate neutrally but take personal positions based on what they consider to be good practice. In the personal domain the participants speak as private individuals with their attitudes, emotions and opinions. They have personal positions based on how they experience the situation.Regarding the topics of mental working environment and work pressure, the participants’ communication in the personal domain will for example address what each member considers a reasonable workload, how they define their personal limit of work pressure, and what creates good processes and job satisfaction for the individual. 

The Domain of Production

Opposite the personal domain is the domain of production. This domain concerns the rules, routines, guidelines and already adopted procedures that are the basis for the artistic work and which govern specific situations and tasks. This domain is where the participant or co-worker speaks about the established way of doing things. Unlike in the personal domain, one cannot decide for themselves what is right or wrong in the domain of production. One follows the already adopted procedures and guidelines — just as in traffic rules where everyone knows green means go and red means stop. For this reason, in the domain of production, leaders primarily perform their leadership tasks. When one addresses work pressure in the domain of production, the conversation will usually address prioritization of job tasks, expected quality level and standards in task solutions as well as procedures and rules for job performance. Thus, large problems are created in this domain when there are conflicting interpretations of what the rules are, what is right in specific situations, and the correct course of action (compare to the example with traffic signals). 

The Domain of Reflection

The third and final domain is the domain of reflection, in which the world is considered subjectively. Unlike in the personal domain, in this “room” we are more open to others’ viewpoints, and our own experience or opinion is subject to reflection. In this domain, it is less interesting to reach a final conclusion than to hear others’ perspectives on the subject and develop a new understanding together. When we address the subject of work pressure, in the personal domain we are biased by our personal experiences and values, while the domain of production restricts us through authority and the rules of the community. However, in the domain of reflection, it is possible to lift ourselves above the subject together in order to see the problems of work pressure from new perspectives. 

Practical Application of Domain Theory

The objective of applying domain tools to create better mental working environments is threefold: 

  1. To structure communication so that dialogue follows specific steps. Knowing that the dialogue is directed and structured creates stability and predictability in regard to a complicated and sometimes delicate subject. 
  2. To consider as many perspectives and logics in the mental working environment as possible through communication about the mental working environment. Holding a dialogue about the mental working environment in each of the three domains consecutively ensures that the group will gain a thorough understanding of all perspectives on the subject. 
  3. That communication about the mental working environment in different domains enriches each other, creating a fertile ground for new understandings and ways of acting. For example, a dialogue in the domain of reflection can help add new understandings to the individual participants’ subjective understanding of his/her mental working environment in the personal domain and inspire new agreements about how to proceed in the domain of production. 

As a bonus, using the domain tools has the added effect of strengthening the participants’ ability to identify which domains govern different situations and to recognize when disagreements occur because participants are communicating based on different domains and logics.  A similarity between the domains is that they seem obvious and logical to the individual speaking. Disagreements therefore occur most often when parties communicate based on different domains (when one party is talking about their emotions while the other refers to rules and procedures, they are probably talking past each other). 

Sources:  

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Effectuation

Effectuation refers to a non-linear approach to working in a non-causal process. As such, the approach is applicable to the artistic practice and business, which often cannot be placed into a predetermined causal context. The basic premise of effectuation is the idea that the future can be influenced through actions. In other words, one creates one’s own possibilities. The method is developed by Sara Sarasvathy. Sarasvathy’s theory of effectuation describes an approach to decision-making and action in processes in which one identifies the best next step toward reaching one’s goal based on the resources available. Along with this, one can also adjust their direction in relation to the outcome of their actions.  

Effectuation goes against causal logic in which one defines a firm goal and makes a detailed plan of the path they will take to reach it. This causal approach is often inappropriate for use in processes characterized by unpredictability and uncertainty, such as the process of innovation in the artistic practice and business. The basis of the method is what Sarasvathy calls the Pilot in the Plane Principle. Sara Sarasvathy is a professor at Virginia University. She developed the basic principles of the theory of effectuation in 2001 and still works with it intensively today.  

In 2007, Sarasvathy was named one of the 18 best professors of entrepreneurship by the magazine Fortune Small Business. She received an honorary doctorate from Babson College in 2013 for the impact of her work on entrepreneurship education. Read more about effectuation and get the CAKI Miniguide: Effectuation here. 

Learn more about effectuation in CAKIs Miniguide: Effectuation

Evaluation

Think ahead!

Evaluation can happen continuously as well as when the project is completed. Often the evaluation is downgraded because it may seem unnecessary to spend time looking back when the project is underway or already well over. But the evaluation is an important tool for you and others to learn from the experiences that have been gained in the process. By reflecting on the process and learning from any mistakes, you also get a chance to make up for bad habits and set new guidelines for future projects. You should plan for evaluation during the various project phases so that it is an integral part of the project plan from the start.

Involving all of the team

Everyone involved in the project should participate in the evaluation. Depending on their role, they may be involved to varying degrees. The evaluation can take place both individually and in plenary. Individually, eg in writing, because it gives the individual the opportunity for anonymity. Plenum because the dialogue between different parties can create new thoughts and ideas. And one should not underestimate the importance of everyone meeting at the end and having the opportunity to say what they did not get to say in the process, pat each other on the shoulder and round up the work. It is rarely to be considered a failure if you did not achieve exactly the goals you had defined in the beginning. It may be that you have learned something new from the turn the project took, and you have led the project in a better direction, changing goals and success criteria as the project unfolded. Therefore, evaluation should not be a cash settlement of goals and results. Instead, focus on what you have learned from the project and what knowledge you can pass on to others. It is the knowledge that is valuable.

Questions for the evaluation

The evaluation begins with the goal you defined for the project, to begin with. Therefore, start by reviewing vision, goals and sub-goals, and then ask each other:

Did we deliver what we were supposed to?

  • Did we deliver on time?
  • Did we deliver quality?
  • Did we meet the budget?
  • Did we work well together?

Then you can look ahead and ask:

  • What could we do better?
  • What did we learn that we can use next time?
  • What learning can we pass on to others?

Feel free to pick up on the questions and discussion in a text document that can be shared with those involved in the project. This could be useful if you or other members of the team need to do a similar project some other time.

Evaluate on an ongoing basis

Even if it is a project without a specific end date, eg a company or an association, it is still relevant to evaluate on an ongoing basis. Especially because you have the opportunity to influence the work while it is going on. The evaluation can take place as an ongoing activity, which can advantageously be carried out after you have completed milestones in the project. For example, after a presentation, settlement of an event, in dialogue with the customer when they have tried a product etc.

Reporting

If the project is a study project or supported by a foundation, you may have to make a report at the end of the project. Perhaps the foundation or other project partners require that results and experiences of the project are made visible for a larger public. In this case, you have to meet the requirements that are being set – otherwise, you risk losing the money that has been granted to the project. It is often crucial that by the end of the project you can share the results you have achieved.

You can do this in many ways. You can, for example, disseminate the project using:

  • A publication
  • A film
  • A blog
  • A website
  • A reflection report
  • A presentation
  • A logbook
  • An infographic
  • An article for a trade magazine

For more information:

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

Externalization

Externalization is a tool that can be used in the artistic practice and business as well as in shared processes and feedback culture. Using externalizing language can help separate a person/persons from the process, product, artistic expression or problem in a work process. In externalization, the problem or challenge becomes an object or a separate entity that can be examined and dealt with. Externalizing language invites one or more people into an appreciative, listening and descriptive context in which they see each other as competent contributors. In relation to a feedback culture in an artistic space, separating the art from the artist can be constructive and make it possible to explore and notice new perspectives and future-oriented actions.

The externalization tool is part of the narrative practice and is used when it is necessary to create a reflexive distance between experienced problems and personal identity. The method is a way to deconstruct problematic narratives, thereby questioning the common conclusions about these narratives.

In an everyday understanding, we often have a tendency to think or speak about problems and difficulties as if they are located inside ourselves and others: “I’m inexperienced and insecure,” “My texts are not good enough” or “The others in my project don’t understand my artistic vision.” We use internalizing logic. The deficiencies or problems we experience are a reflection of specific “truths” about our own or others’ identities and natures, and they begin to define who we are.

According to Michael White, who developed the method, every statement can be internalized or externalized as a question. For example, a statement like “There’s a negative attitude in the group” can be internalized as “What signs show there is a negative attitude?” or externalized as “What effect does it have that the negative attitude has so much influence?” The negative attitude is externalized this way so the person or persons have a chance to get the negative attitude outside themselves and instead position themselves or take a stance in relation to it. The problem “negative attitude” becomes external and is no longer part of the person / persons.

White has developed a position map to create a reflexive distance between experienced problems and the personal identity (White, 2007). White uses the map as a metaphor, because in a narrative perspective, a story is seen as a landscape where one can move around. In the narrative practice, a consultant or therapist can now use a series of maps to help the person or persons find their way to new places and preferred destinations for the given story. Subsequently, they can work toward attributing more value to other and more constructive stories.

Text based on Michala Schnoor’s book Narrative Organizational Development — Forming Common Meaning and Action, Danish Psychological Publishing, 2009

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Film Lexikon

The Danish Film Institute has made a reference work with the following elements: The Film’s basic elements, Cinematic means, the Film’s dramaturgy, Analysis models, Location, Props and Genre and genre films.

See more (in Danish) here

Fundraising

 Fundraising can provide finances to allow the artistic business to conduct studies, realize projects and works or to try out and experiment with production formats and partnerships. An artistic business often receives a part of its capital through fundraising. This is the case for both small and medium sized artistic businesses and practices as well as larger cultural businesses like festivals and kunsthaller. 

 Free cultural funds are found in public and private foundations, which do not require a definite economic return on their investment. Instead, these sources focus on supporting and developing an area as a whole. An example is the Bikuben Foundation, which supports theatre, visual arts and young people affected by social problems. Another example is funding from municipalities’ leisure and cultural administrations, which support cultural endeavors and business in their respective municipalities. Funding can also be offered with varying degrees of freedom, for example when the Danish Arts Foundation (Statens Kunstfond) earmarks funds for a specific effort for vulnerable neighborhoods. Fundraising is more than just submitting applications. It can also involve crowdfunding, sponsorships, partnerships, fundraiser events and other funding options.  

Regardless of which approach you take to fundraising, you should plan your fundraiser work and have an economic overview of the project’s development, needs and possibilities. You should have your arguments in place and be precise in your description of what exactly you are requesting funding for. It is not so important whether you are fundraising for something big or small, or if you are seeking funds for development, projects or business ideas. Perhaps you need the money to produce an album. Perhaps your group is looking to procure funds for a festival, or maybe you want to create a theatrical production abroad. There are many basic materials you must have in place, when you start the process of raising funds. Whether you are fundraising for large or small projects, whether you seek funds for partners, locally, nationally, or internationally, your basic materials will be the starting point for the process. Your basic materials are your project description (what), timeline (when) and budget (how much). Read more in CAKI Handbook: Fundraising 

 

Financial Management

Financial management is an important function in the artistic business and project management in general. Budgeting, bookkeeping, financial reporting and knowledge of the rules and laws concerning finances in the artistic business are a necessity. Read more about financial management here.

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Idea Development

The idea is the concept that must carry the whole project. Therefore, it is important to gain experience with idea development so you learn how to develop thorough and sustainable projects. Our CAKI Handbook: Idea Development and Project Management provides guidance in navigating the idea process in all its phases — from the earliest stages to planning and implementation strategy. 

Get the handbook here.

Or read more here:

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/good-ideas-vs-bad-ideas/

Incubator

Incubator is the term used for a programme or organisation whose purpose is to support, guide and develop new projects or companies so that they become viable. Incubators function as development environments and can e.g. assist with advice, financial support, office and study facilities, organizational development and help build networks. 

As a part of the ENTRE initiative, CAKI is in the process of exploring the possibilities of creating an incubation environment at the art schools. The initiative is based on existing knowledge across educations based on e.g. entrepreneurship and artistic development. The development of the incubator initiative has started in 2021. 

Read CAKI’s inspirational presentation for the development of an incubation environment for the art schools here (in Danish)

Read about the incubator process that CAKI developed and implemented in collaboration with CSE Lab and Republikken in 2011 here.

Innovation

CAKI defines artistic innovation as artistic activities and processes that create new knowledge in the form of new methods and / or new products.

By exploiting this new knowledge, through the combination of knowledge and realization of opportunities, real added value is being generated. Artistic innovation thus results in a qualified turnover of a new knowledge that can be applied in a larger context, be it artistic, technological or societal. Work with artistic innovation contributes to new dimensions for the artistic practice.

Read more about CAKIs focus on artistic innovation here

Innovation spiral (from Nesta)

There are many ways to help bring good ideas to life. Nesta works to uncover, analyze and test new ways of supporting innovation from across sectors and around the world. These techniques, tools, and processes are collectively known as innovation methods. Although every innovation is a complex story of feedback loops and jumps, there are various structured stages that most innovations pass through. We represent these in the innovation spiral. Explore it to find out what we’ve learned along the way.

Learn more, go to Nesta

Interview Technique

For many artists, the ability to perform interviews can be useful when conducting research for an artistic job or when seeking to expand one’s knowledge about an area of work. Journalist Kurt Strand has written the book Interview for Journalists (Kurt Strand, Ajour, 2020), which is the basis for the following guide to interview technique.

Interview comes from the French entrevue, which means a short, arranged meeting between two people. The interviewer asks questions in order to obtain knowledge about something which the interview subject (source) then chooses to share with the interviewer, and in many cases the general public.

Kurt Strand outlines the basic rules of interviewing:

  • An interview is a planned and controlled dissemination of a person’s opinions, arguments, knowledge and experience.
  • The interviewer asks the questions and plays a minor role — the interview subject has the lead role and answers the questions.
  • The interviewer is subjective but must be fair, honest and polite, in other words neutral.

Interview is both method and genre

Input-interview: Interview as method. Typically used in research together with other tools for the collection of facts. Output-interview: Interview as genre. Here the genre appears in the end result with discernible questions and answers or through the interviewer’s use of relevant clips or quotations.

Interview is not a conversation

The opposite of an interview is a conversation in which two participants are equals. Some interviewers choose to allow the process to develop without exercising tight control, but this requires that the interviewer has a plan for how to regain control so that the interview subject does not take over.Time is a critical factor if an interviewer abandons the questions in order to debate or engage in a longer conversation with the interview subject. The interviewer must know his or her own limitations in the conversational relationship, for example concerning general knowledge, personal engagement and respect.

The interviewer must have a bottom line

The interviewer’s ability to control the conversation comes from the basic principle of all journalism: What is the story? Good reporting trims away the unnecessary, leaving one story as the conclusion. The human brain cannot process too much information at the same time. Therefore, the interviewer must consciously consider and decide what is central to the story, why the story is relevant to the audience, and how to convey the story so that it is received and understood.

Interviewers may ask themselves:

  • What should the audience know?
  • What do they already know?
  • What do they not need to know?
  • What can or should be the bottom line?

Journalism, the profession behind interviews, consists of being highly prepared to listen, doubt and ask questions — challenge, settle and examine.

Targeted preparation

A good interview is the result of good preparation and good questions. In order to conduct precise research with a minimum of waste, the interviewer should know his or her interview goal as early in the preparation process as possible. A precise goal ensures focused research.

Two kinds of questions

Open questions begin with words like what, why and how.

Closed questions can be answered with a yes or no and often produce longer and less constructive answers.

Closed questions                                                                 Open questions

long and vague                                                                      short and precise

contain “noise”                                                                       ownership-based

appealing                                                                              challenging

pseudocritical                                                                         uncovered

aggressive                                                                            friendly

A successful interview will usually consist of mostly open questions, because they allow opinions, arguments and experiences to emerge more clearly and let the interview subject say the integral words.

Atmosphere, respect and sympathy

A positive atmosphere around an interview is essential to the result. The interview subject must feel comfortable with what will happen, for example by knowing the themes that will be addressed. A certain level of respect and sympathy for the interview subject is important.The interviewer should have the composure to be curious, attentive and present in the moment.

Source: Kurt Strand, Interview for Journalists, Ajour, 2020, pp. 11-29

Kurt Strand: https://da.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kurt_Strand

Invoice Rules

Whenever you sell a service, an art work or a product, you must give the customer an invoice and keep a copy of the invoice in your records to document your income. By law, your invoice must include: 

  • A continuing invoice number 
  • Date of invoice 
  • Your company name and address 
  • Your CVR number (or CPR if you are not registered with a CVR-nr.) 
  • The goods/services you have sold and their quantity and price 
  • Sales tax amount 
  • Payment conditions (ho wthe money should be paid) 
  • Payment information (where you want to be paid) 
  • The customer’s name and address (if possible) 
Income Tax (SKAT)

As a teacher, you may encounter students who have questions regarding taxation in their artistic practice or business. This applies to businesses both with and without CVR numbers.

If you are self-employed in the artistic business, you will likely have both A B income and will pay A-Tax as well as B-Tax, and possibly corporate tax or dividend tax. You can read about all of this in CAKI’s Miniguide to Income Tax here.

IPR - Intellectual Property Rights
Knowledge about intellectual property rights is key in any artistic practice. This publication makes IPR accessible and understandable for students as well as professionals – download it here.

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Karl Tomm’s Question Types

The ability to ask questions is a core competency for any teacher, leader or coach. Specific questions focus our attention in specific directions, which is why it is important for a teacher or leader of artistic processes to be aware of the different question types.Karl Tomm is on the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Calgary as professor of psychiatry and directs the Calgary Family Therapy Centre, which he founded in 1973. Tomm is deeply interested in the application of system theory and narrative theory in relation to communication. In Tomm’s method of systemic coaching, every question opens a domain of legitimate answers. One tool Tomm has developed is a wheel illustrating an interviewer’s question types organized by the intent of each question, the assumptions behind the question, and the opportunities the question either opens or closes for the rest of the interview.

For example, “why”-questions produce confrontational answers, since the question of why adheres to a linear, cause-and-effect logic which encourages simple answers and “because”-statements. (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009).

Tomm’s wheel has a horizontal axis of intent which places the intents of orienting to the past on the left and influencing the future on the right. The intent axis is intersected by the vertical assumption axis with linear assumptions (with a single possible assumption) at the top and circular assumptions (with many possibilities) at the bottom. Assumptions may be perceived as complementary and can thereby enrich each other.These two axes, the intent and assumption axes, form the basis of Tomm’s categorization of question types (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, pp. 122-124). Karl tomm’s question types can be combined with ENTREWIKI: Appreciative Inquiry or ENTREWIKI: The Reflecting Team

The model is taken from Systemic Coaching: A Primer, ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, available here.

 

Application of the Model

In relation to an interview following the model above, Karl Tomm finds it appropriate to start with the linear, past-oriented questions and simple questions, illustrated here by the detective. Linear questions have a clarifying character, create contact and can for example address: What is the problem, in what ways do you experience it, and what do you do? (Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 126). From there, the interviewer moves into circular questions, which may appear more complex but are still open-ended, illustrated by the anthropologist. Examples of these questions can be: How do you think others see the situation? What do you think others are trying to communicate with that? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 128).

The reflexive questions are illustrated by the futurist and are now oriented toward the future but still rest on a circular understanding of the world. Questions like: What do you think others would say it would take to solve the problem? What would the others’ actions help you to do? Finally, the interviewer takes on a more leading captain role by posing simple, future-oriented questions. With this, we come back to a more linear understanding of the world, where the goal is to influence the person in focus to act. Examples of questions: How long may this problem exist? Might it be a good idea to…? What specifically will you go home and do? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, pp. 130-131).

Kolb’s Learning Circle for experimental learning

David A. Kolb is an American author whose work focuses on learning methods. He is the author of the book Experiential Learning. In Denmark his methods have gained ground in the learning system Flexlearn, among others. David Kolb has worked with the connections between learning, working, and how new knowledge is formed. The learning circle (also known as Kolb’s learning cycle) is a method for understanding the processes, which are at the foundation of learning. As a teacher, the circle can also be used to organize teaching and learning processes. David A. Kolb has divided the process into four phases: experience (concrete learning), reviewing (reflective observation), conceptualization (abstract understanding) and experimentation (systematic testing).  

The learner processes concrete experience and impressions through reflection. When you reflect, you wonder about what you experience, read or hear. You examine the connection between the experience and what you already know. In this sense, reflection is more than just disconnected thoughts. Next, the learner considers theories or abstract models and examines the connection between the existing knowledge and newly acquired experiences. The learner seeks to adapt the new knowledge to the old, both concretely and abstractly. In some cases, this will mean revising your perception of your current knowledge. The newly acquired knowledge is then actively tested out. In other words, you train yourself in the learned material until it becomes part of yourself. Finally, you are ready to acquire new experiences and to learn new material again and again.  

Sources: David A. Kolb: Experiential learning, 1984, Experience as the source of learning and development 

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Megatrends

Megatrends are a tool that can help the student understand the global patterns and movements that influence how we form our identity and spending across cultures, economies, technologies and globalization. Megatrends are defined by describing the global development tendencies in society that are significant to people, organizations and businesses. Used methodically, megatrends can tell us about tendencies in the outside world from both a present and forward-looking perspective. Many companies and organizations use megatrends to predict the needs and expectations of a constantly changing world, for example regarding new technologies like streaming, which influences elements such as the release formats of artistic works. By using megatrends, one can move to the forefront with the development of new innovative solutions and expectations of the future through structured trend analysis and understanding. Megatrends are also a method that can help us predict and understand the tendencies that affect many aspects of the world’s population’s way of living.

You can read more about a global Danish business that uses megatrends here,or visit Innovationlab, which specializes in trendspotting.

Mentorship

A mentor is an experienced person who wants to share their knowledge by guiding and teaching, while a mentee is a less experienced person who is motivated to expand their competencies and opportunities by entering a dialogue with a mentor. A mentorship builds upon an open dialogue between the mentor and mentee, whereby the mentor can inspire and support the mentee regarding education, career or personal development. Read more about mentorship and mentoring programs here.

Mind map (Idea development)

A mind map paints a picture of an idea’s facets and their internal connections. A mind map can make it easier for you to structure an idea. Template for mind mapping.

How to:

1. Write the idea in the middle of a piece of paper.

2. Write down every aspect of the idea that comes to mind, and connect the

items to each other and to the idea through general categories such as

artistic expression, communication, inspiration, target audience, etc.

For more information:

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/mindmap/

Sources: Idea development & Project management, 2021, CAKI

Mindset Theory: Carol Dweck

Fixed vs. growth mindset: the two types:

When it comes to our attitude toward learning, there are two types. You likely know them both. The first type is quick to give up and is not interested in learning new things. She says things like: “I’m not good at that, so I can’t learn it” or “I’m good at this, so I don’t need to challenge myself.” Conversely, the second type loves to learn new things. She throws herself into new areas and is endlessly curious about how things work. The idea that our attitudes toward learning could be so different surprised researcher Carol Dweck as early as the 1970’s, when she first noticed the difference in children. She called the two mindsets fixed mindset and growth mindset.

According to Dweck, the kind of mindset or thinking pattern you have plays a major role in predicting your level of performance. It all depends on how you perceive the word “learning” — whether you believe talent is inborn and therefore something you either have or don’t have, or you believe talent can be developed through hard work, strategy, and input from others.

If you have a growth mindset, you will get better results according to Dweck.

The good news is that you can change your thinking pattern at any time. Which mindset are you?

In her book, Mindset: the New Psychology of Success, Dweck describes how people with fixed mindsets believe that abilities are set in stone. According to Dweck, this creates a tendency to avoid challenges, give up easily, see effort as useless, and feel threatened by the success of others. Those who have a growth mindset on the other hand believe that one’s basic abilities can be developed through effort. This means that people with a growth mindset embrace challenges, show persistence when challenged, view effort as the way to mastery, and learn from others’ successes.

Source: https://lederindsigt.dk/vaerktoejer-skabeloner/hr-og-personlig-udvikling/derfor-skal-du-kende-dit-tankemoenster/

References:

Carol Dweck: Du er hvad du tænker. Den nye mindset-teori om vejen til succes. Borgen, 2017

Carol Dweck: Mindset. The new psychology of succes, 2008

Chris Hildrew: Becoming a Growth Mindset School. The power of Mindset to Transform Teaching, Leadership and Learning. Routledge, 2018

B.Hymner & M. Gershon: Growth Mindset Pocketbook. Teachers Pocketbooks, 2914.

Boaler: Mathematical Mindsets. (look at:www.youcubed.org)

Links:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUWn_TJTrnU

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hiiEeMN7vbQ

 

 

 

 

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Negotiation

As a teacher in an art education, you may encounter students who need advice on pricing their work.It is important that the student’s education includes guidance on how to receive fair pay and compensation for their work, both to keep their business model working and to avoid underbidding the market to the disadvantage of themselves and their colleagues. Read more about negotiation in the artistic business in CAKI’s Miniguide to Pricing and Negotiation here.

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Organisation

It is important that you in the start-up phase as well as the operating phase spend time on and nurture all the departments in the business – not just the ones where you create, experiment and produce!

Model: Organisation.

The model is developed by Pernille Skov as part of The Art of Start Up (2018)

 

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Participation and Reification

For artists, Etienne Wenger’s theory of negotiation of meaning in the space between procedure and completion can be an interesting perspective regarding one’s own artistic practice. 

According to Wenger, participation and reification cannot be considered separately: they are a pair. They form a unit in their duality. To simplify this in terms of artistic practice, one might say that participation is the process and reification is a result we present. The reification of the presented play or film is only a product and is empty without participation. Inversely, the production of a film or play – reification essential for interaction – is the form of negotiation that is necessary for a society and can unite the many perspectives, interests and interpretations that participation entails. The reification is empty without the involved citizens’ participation.  

Negotiation of meaning weaves participation and reification so tightly together that meaning seems to have its own unitary, self-sufficient existence. According to Wenger, participation and reification are both different and complementary in their interaction; they make up one unit in their duality. To activate the one, it is necessary to activate the other (Wenger, 2004, pp. 77-78).  

When we in connection with participation recognize ourselves in each other, in connection with reification, we project ourselves out into the world, and since we don’t need to recognize ourselves in the projections, we give our meanings an independent existence. That opposition between reciprocity and projection are an important difference between participation and reification.(Wenger, 2004, p. 73) 

Source, model and text:Communities of Practice, Etienne Wegner, Hans Reitzel Publishing, 2004 

See more of Etienne Wenger under ENTREWIKI: Communities of Practice 

See and hear Etienne Wegner’s presentation at the ENTRENord conference, CAKI. 2014 here.

Payroll Tax

Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. Therefore, you may encounter students who need knowledge about the tax rules that apply to their particular type of artistic business. The rules for tax registration and payroll tax are part of the knowledge one needs when registering a business. Read more about sales tax, artist tax and payroll tax in CAKI’s Miniguide here.

 

Pitching

A pitch is a technique of communication in which your idea or suggestion is presented quickly and concisely. Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide to Pitching here.

Portfolio

The value of an online portfolio is almost immeasurable when you work independently in an artistic field. Whether you are a job seeker, freelancer or self-employed, the portfolio is where you show and present your work and make yourself available to customers, collaborators, curators, bookers, foundations, etc. Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide to Online Portfolios here.

The Push Method

The push method is an empirically and theoretically supported model which uses seven strategies to help students transform their professional knowledge into action. The Push Method outlines the transition between having knowledge about something to visualizing and taking action based on thoughts.

The Push Method works by visualizing a project through the requirement of action – a push – and thereby a transformative action. The transformative action creates a reflection of how the action can be improved and changed, which in turn creates new thoughts and visualizations of action.

Read more about the Push Method here.

PR and Communication

PR and communication play a crucial role in how a project or an artistic business are presented to the outside world. Therefore, it is important to send a clear signal of what the project, practice or artistic business is about through carefully considered communication.

The CAKI Handbook: PR and Communication provides the student with guidance on how to use PR and communication strategically. It includes advice on how to handle contact with the press and media and how to create precise and engaging press materials.

Get the handbook here.

Press-related work - 8 tips

1. Find the fairy-tale factor

What is the story behind your project? Is there even a story at all? Think of your project as a fairy-tale. Find the suspense curve, controversies, the plot and what makes it novel. Take a critical look at your project. Is it just interesting to you, or is it also interesting to the media’s readers, viewers or listeners?

Sources for your fairy-tale

For example, you can find the story that makes you or your project special in:

The founding: What’s the story behind the start-up of the band/artist collective/ project?

Milestones: Have there been any crucial turning points, successes, conflicts or crises?

The name or title: Does it mean or reflect something special/noteworthy?

The process itself: The story behind the project and how you work

Feedback: From your audience or others. Have you received a special or unexpected reaction?

Partners: Do you have any surprising or well-known partners?

Your workplace and working day: Do you work somewhere special? Do you have an atypical working day?

Attitudes: What are your attitudes towards current affairs/the culture you are part of?

2. Structure your press release as an article

A press release ought to resemble an article. The following components are needed:

Headline

A headline should catch the reader’s attention and describe the story. In other words, it should be eye-catching and reflect the essence of your project. A headline should generally be limited to no more than six words.

Lead-in

A really brief section consisting of approximately 2-3 lines that summarise your project and the angle of the press release.

Body text

This is where you describe the project. Always start with the most important information and remember to write who is behind the project so that the receiver knows the sender. Break down the body text into short sections with subheadings.

Quotes

Make sure to include a quote that the journalist can use. The quote can be from the artist, curator, partners or others.

Fact box

Answer the who, what, where when and how much it costs in a fact box.

Contact information

Include a name and contact information at the bottom so that the journalist can contact you for more information.

3. Create different versions of your story

You should find an appropriate angle for every medium when drafting your press release. If you are contacting different media, you should draft several versions of a press release, each of which is angled towards the medium’s primary target group.

4. Write briefly and factually

A press release should never fill more than a single A4 page. Make sure to present your point quickly. Avoid using words such as “unique”, “beautiful”, “amazing” and other adjectives that flatter your project. These impair the credibility of your message.

5. Use the subject header field in your e-mail

Try catching the journalist’s interest in the subject header so that he or she wants to open the e-mail.

TIP:

Draw inspiration from other press releases. You can find press releases on a lot of websites such as Det Danske Filminstitut, Galleri Nicolai Wallner and Vega.

7. Offer something extra

News media are in competition against one another. If you establish a good relationship with a journalist, one strategy might be to offer them something that competing media won’t get access to. It could be an exclusive story, an interview or a sneak peek of the exhibition.

8. Think differently

Social media and blogs have changed the world of news media. Journalists are constantly looking for a great story, and that’s why they’re present where their readers are: social media. A lot of journalists find their stories on Facebook and Twitter. Even though it may feel like crossing a boundary, you should therefore also contact journalists via Twitter and Facebook. Also, keep in mind that some bloggers have several thousand daily readers. It can therefore be just as valuable to get mentioned by a blogger as by a newspaper. Consider how best to reach your desired receiver.

6. Pick up the phone

It’s a good idea to contact the journalists by phone once you have sent the press release. Prepare an elevator pitch – a brief and catchy introduction that describes the essence of the project in a few lines. After your conversation, you can also send any additional press material the journalist may have requested. It is not certain that your story will get picked up, but make it a side-goal to build a good relationship with the journalist. It’s a relationship you can draw on next time you need to contact a media outlet.

Get the handbook.

Sources: ‘PR & Communication’, 2020, CAKI

Project description

The content of your project description will depend on who the recipient is: the project group, collaborators, colleagues, foundations, media or some other stakeholder. You should always write your description from the angle of the recipient. If the document is intended for internal use between colleagues, address considerations about staffing and structure. If it is for a foundation which supports Nordic culture, emphasize the Nordic element in the project.

A project description should:

  • Awaken curiosity and tell the project‘s core story

What difference will the project make in the world? What is new about the project‘s idea or vision?

  • Address the project‘s relevance

Why should others be interested in the project? Who is the project relevant to – and why?

  • Show action

How will you complete the project? How will you ensure that the project is visible to others? What is the financial plan?

  • Create trust

Do you have strong collaborators? Experience from earlier projects? A thorough project description?

8 tips for making a project description

1. Be brief and concise, and start with the most important information. Start with a very short and catchy description of what the project is about.

2. Be specific when describing the project‘s process and content.

3. Use examples to help the reader visualize what you are writing about.

4. Engage the reader: Create pictures, surprise, use feelings and humour.

5. Avoid (too much) professional jargon.

6. Write your text as a whole without loose ends or contradicting information. Read the text out loud to yourself. Does it sound natural? If not, imagine you are telling a friend about your project. How would you express yourself?

7. Target the text: Angle your project description toward the recipient. Write only what the recipient needs to know to understand the project.

8. Keep it brief! The project description must not be too long. The content should only fill 2 – 4 A4 pages and can be supplemented with extra documentation such as budget, CV, illustrations etc.

Content of the project description

Make an adequate budget

Did you forget anything?

Who’s responsible: Name, email address and phone number (for example in document‘s side header) for the person in charge of a given task.

Background: Where did the idea come from? Why is it a good idea? Does it fill a need in society, the target group, or the world?

Vision, goal and objective: What is the project‘s aim?

Target group: Who is the project for?

Collaborators: Short introduction and description of their role in the project.

Form and content: List the main points of the project.

Process: Activities plan with deadlines (also functions as a timeline).

Marketing and communication: Describe a strategy for visibility.

Budget: Provide relevant budgets.

Evaluation and documentation: How will you evaluate the project and report the results?

CV: Include CVs for central persons if showing the project description to outside parties who may not know you or your project.

For more information:

Source: ‘Idea development & Project Management’, 2020, CAKI

Project planning

Process and planning

When you have defined the objective and vision, ask yourself what is required to reach them – and further, when you must reach them. With this as the starting point, you may begin planning the project. All the project’s activities – small and large, are written in the project plan. In the activities plan, you also note the project’s milestones. Milestones are the activities that are of particular importance and that other parts of the project depend on.

Uncertainty along the way is normal

Even if you have set a series of realistic goals, you cannot predict whether or not the project will unfold according to plan. Projects are often characterized by ongoing development and have many unknown factors. Therefore it is completely natural that you may have to adapt, change or give up some activities along the way. Be prepared to revise goals, deadlines and other aspects of the project. Of course, this does not mean that you must give up on your vision and goal if the plans change or as soon as you encounter obstacles! Simply be open to influences from the outside world. Practice thinking of alternative and creative solutions when you encounter limitations – the alternative solution is not always the lesser solution.

Make a project plan

1. List all activities in one column

2. List the names of who is responsible for the activity in another column

3. Note the process and activity deadline in an overview

4. Mark milestones in red

Model: Idea development & Project management, 2021, CAKI, p.31

For more information and templates:

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

Sources: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI

Pricing

As a teacher in an art education, you may encounter students who need advice about pricing their work. It is important that the student’s education includes guidance on how to receive fair compensation for their work, both to keep their business model working and to avoid underbidding the market to the disadvantage of themselves and their colleagues.   

 Read more about pricing in the artistic business in CAKI’s Miniguide to Pricing and Negotiation here 

Progression Model

Our understanding of the concept of entrepreneurship has expanded significantly over the last ten years. The term entrepreneurship has previously been synonymous with starting a business, but its definition has now broadened to include both social and cultural entrepreneurship. As such, the purpose of instruction in entrepreneurship and innovation appears complex, since it must provide students with knowledge and competencies that can be applied in many different contexts. Instruction in entrepreneurship and innovation thus becomes part of a forward-looking cultivation ideal which will give students the competencies to see opportunities and create value in the broader understanding. Entrepreneurship instruction must simultaneously give trainees and students the tools to handle the many challenges associated with being a human being in a globalized and changing world.

The expansion of the concept of entrepreneurship therefore affects the goal of innovation and entrepreneurship instruction, which is broadly defined as:

  • Giving the individual the opportunity and tools to shape their own life
  • Educating responsible, engaged citizens
  • Expanding knowledge and ambitions regarding establishing businesses and workplaces
  • Increasing creativity and innovation in existing organizations
  • Creating growth, development and welfare

In order to realize this complex goal, the Foundation for Entrepreneurship has developed a so-called progression model to clarify the specifics of innovation and entrepreneurship as a learning objective at various levels of the education system. The ambition is to secure a shared conceptual understanding of entrepreneurship as well as an understanding of the progression of learning objectives and the entrepreneurial and innovative culture which results from the realization of the learning objectives in teaching.

Get the publication Progression Model here.

Project Management

Basic knowledge of project management is the foundation which enables students to understand how to run their projects in the most sensible manner. In the CAKI Handbook: Idea Development and Project Management, we give the student the necessary tools to become a successful project manager in an artistic practice.

Get the handbook here.

Quality and Relevance in the Artistic Business

“Quality and Relevance in the Artistic Business” is the title of one of the themes in ENTRE PROGRAM. Read more about the program here.

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Reflecting Team

The focus in the Reflecting Team is on the production of questions. The Reflecting Team is a reflection tool that draws upon the collective resources. Here the focus is on the entrepreneurial process to which the collective contributes in each their own way, rather than what the individual can perform as independent entrepreneur. With the Reflecting Team, you often begin to notice the circular. The process, the complexity and the many possible answers which can contribute to broadening the understanding of the way things are connected. 

The Reflecting Team thereby also challenges the notion that the subject of entrepreneurship is a cause-and-effect subject that ascribes to the Schumpeterian understanding of entrepreneurship. The Reflecting Team is made up of an interviewer (coach), a person with a challenge, and a reflecting team (a minimum of two people). The Reflecting Team must be a safe space in which a person can discover new perspectives and possible courses of action for a given situation or problem with help from the collective. The Reflecting Team has an observer status but is brought into play as a dialog partner for the interviewer during the conversation with their reflections on the further course of the conversation. This could address for example how a student can move forward with an orchestra he or she is about to establish, or how to handle certain teaching situations. The possibilities are completely open. The focus is on the questions and the interviewer but can at the same time spark new waves of thought in the interviewee. When beginning to explore the different categories of questions, according to the following model (Karl Tomm’s question types – see also elsewhere in the WIKI for more on Tomm), we start with the linear past-oriented and simple questions, illustrated here by the detective. Linear questions have a clarifying character, create contact and can for example address: What is the problem, in what ways do you experience it, and what do you do? (Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 126). 

From there, the interviewer moves into circular questions, which may appear more complex but are still open-ended, illustrated by the anthropologist. Examples of these questions can be: How do you think others see the situation? What do you think others are trying to communicate with that? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, p. 128). The reflective questions are illustrated by the futurist and are now oriented toward the future but still rest on a circular understanding of the world. Questions like: What do you think others would say it would take to solve the problem? What would the others’ actions help you to do? Finally, the interviewer takes on a more leading role by posing simple, future-oriented questions. With this, we come back to a more linear understanding of the world, where the goal is to influence the person in focus to act. Examples of questions: How long may this problem exist? Might it be a good idea to…? What specifically will you go home and do? (ed. Moltke and Molly, 2009, pp. 130-131). An important exercise in the Reflecting Team is to have the students listen and pose questions to each other without suggesting their own solutions. This often seems to fall just short of asking “Why don’t you…?”, but that type of directional question is not part of the Reflecting Team, since that type of question or instruction can close the conversation space rather than open it. The interviewer must be attached to the interviewee and sincerely curious in order to be influential through the questions posed. This brings the interviewer into focus, which is the tradition of Appreciative Inquiry. 

A specific guide to the exercise is found here.

Background: 

The Reflecting Team builds upon a combination of theoretical contributions, including Appreciative Inquiry. The work of Tom Andersen (Andersen, Reflekterende Processer, 

2005) is central to the development of the reflection tools, as are Karl Tomms’ question types, which provide an important introduction to applying the technique. 

Revenue streams

When you build a business, you should make sure that you have a variety of sources of income that generate revenue.

It is too vulnerable if you depend on income from only one or two sources of income. Look at the different elements you have in your business model (sales of unique pieces of work, digital content, partnerships, etc. – see also under ‘BUSINESS MODEL’ elsewhere in the wiki). For each item, you take a tour of the financing wheel below and decide which revenue sources you want to prioritize for each type of revenue you have in your business.

Model: REVENUE STREAMS.

The model was developed by Maiken Ingvordsen and Pernille Skov as part of The Art of Start Up (2018)

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Schumpeter

Joseph Alois Schumpeter is one of the 20th century most influential economics. Schumpeter is internationally acknowledged for his theories about entrepreneurship and the development of the theory about creative destruction. Schumpeter was the first to theorize entrepreneurship, and he considered entrepreneurs as needed forces for the development of the economy of society.

Schumpeter argued that innovation needs to be seen as the most essential actor in correlation with the development of an economy. He advocated that innovation-driven market forces create better results than the invisible hand and price competition seen from the point of view of a society’s economy.

Schumpeter argued that there are two ways in which one can respond when changes/developments occur. Either one can respond adaptive, which is understood as a traditional response – one adapts to the change and returns to the starting point. The alternative is the creative response, which is when one responds in a non-traditional response – one reacts in a way that diverts from the traditional way of reacting. The first kind of response is known as the traditional entrepreneur, which strives to maintain the existing and known, while the second position refers to the innovation – the creation of the new. A creative response can therefore not be foreseen, and it will forever change the subsequent events.

In addition to the theory of the entrepreneur and innovator, Schumpeter’s developed etc. also the concept of creative destruction. Creative destruction refers to the thesis that the industrial mutation in the form of the industry’s constant revolution of society’s economic structures from within, will incessantly break down the same structures and create new economic structures. This degradation and creation will constantly take place and must be seen as an eternal – and necessary – development.

Sensemaking

How do we create meaning in the artistic business? One way is by letting the action come before the individual. The American organization theorist Karl Weick puts the entrepreneurial and artistic action in focus rather than the entrepreneur or artist themselves. This creates opportunities for sensemaking, which also means expanding the opportunities of the artistic business, for example with regard to flexibility in the face of a global and changing labor market. According to Karl Weick, sensemaking is a process that occurs in the interaction between people and their surroundings. Meaning is not simply communicated by the artistic leader to the co-worker or participant in an artistic process — meaning (sense) is first established for the co-worker or participant when he or she becomes an active co-creator of the process together with others. Sensemaking is a theory developed in an attempt to understand interaction in organizations as well as the link between organization and sensemaking. Karl Weick moves the focus away from the person and onto the actions and the small retrospective victories that can drive a process forward.

 

7 Properties of Sensemaking According to Weick, the process of sensemaking has seven properties. By being conscious of these seven properties, it is possible to stimulate the positive formation of meaning:

  1. Social context: Sensemaking occurs in interaction with others by attaching ourselves to the social context we are part of: “Sensemaking is influenced by the actual, implied or imagined presence of others (…) To change meaning is to change the social context” (Weick, p. 461, 2001).
  2. Personal identity: According to Weick, the individual is distributive. No individual acts as a single sensemaker. Identity is formed through an interactive process with other people, and that determines the individual’s definition of himself/herself.
  3. Retrospect — at the end: Meaning occurs in retrospect, through a reading of the past, a time when the artist and the entrepreneur may have been embedded in discourse. Hindsight is essential to understanding the present.
  4. Salient cues — plot: that which is designated as significant or conspicuous. Sensemaking is focused on and derived from clues or a plot. “To make sense is to focus on a limited set of cues, and to elaborate those few cues into a plausible, pragmatic, momentarily useful guide for actions that themselves are partially defining the guide that they follow.” (Weick, 2001, p. 460)
  5. Ongoing projects — fluid present: Our interaction process with other people is happening all the time, and we can therefore see ourselves and our actions as in constant motion. We have opportunities for many beginnings and endings. “Experience is a continuous flow, and it becomes an event only when efforts are made to put boundaries around some portion of the flow, or when some interruption occurs” (Weick, 2001, p. 462)
  6. Trustworthiness: In order to achieve plausibility, actions must be attached to practice. “Sensemaking is about coherence, how events hang together, certainty that is efficient for present purposes, and credibility.” (Weick, 2001, p. 462)
  7. Enactment — action: Since, according to Weick, we create meaning in retrospect, experimentation and adjustment along the way are central. Action produces reaction, and the meaning of a situation is often in the response. Small wins, as Weick calls them, mean that even the slightest win is a concrete implemented outcome of moderate importance. A small win seems insignificant in itself, but a series of small wins reveals a pattern that can attract allies and deter opponents. Small wins are controllable possibilities that produce visible results. When a small win is achieved, forces are set in motion (Weick, 2001, p. 432).

 

With the entrepreneurial and artistic actions in focus instead of the entrepreneur or artist, we set the stage for sensemaking, especially in the global and changing labor market.

 

Source: Karl Weick: Making Sense of the Organization, Blackwell Publishing, 2001

SoMe - 7 tips

Social media are among the most popular types of communication channels. They are free to use, and if you do your research thoroughly, you can reach your target audience in their ‘home turf’.

1. Be personal,

but avoid getting too personal. Sharing details from your private life often comes off as unprofessional.

2. Think before you write.

It needs to be interesting to your followers or the general public.

3. Create your own style

that’s reflected in your layout and content. Choose a consistent concept for your communication.

4. Mix up your content:

Use texts, links, sayings, quotes, funny remarks, contests, video, audio, links, GIFs, etc.

5. Link

your channels together. For example, use social media to create awareness about your latest upload on SoundCloud or Vimeo.

6. Post frequent updates!

Update your blog, the website for your project or your Facebook page regularly.

7. Use hashtags:

Find a hashtag for your project that you can use on all the social media you are focusing on.

Get the handbook.

Sources: ‘PR & Communication, 2020, CAKI

Stakeholder analysis

In order for your project to gain visibility, it must be directed toward someone.

The recipient of your project is primarily directed toward is called the target group. This can be an audience, a customer, a professional group, a teacher, a producer, the head of a company, children ages 5 to 7, and so on.

Your project may also be of interest to many others outside the target group. For example, it could be of interest to an educational institution, a foundation, the media, or parents of children ages 5 to 7. All parties who are interested in your project, who can be influenced by it, or who can have an influence on the project’s end result are called stakeholders.

Stakeholder analysis helps you in the development of the project. You become aware of who the project’s stakeholders are and how they can or must become involved. The analysis helps you determine what to say to whom to create interest – and helps you plan activities, communication tasks, etc.

The stakeholder analysis is useful to have at hand throughout the project process, including during the internal distribution of tasks among members of the project team. When you understand their expectations and can consider both your own needs and their potential needs, you will also be better prepared to avoid conflicts.

Stakeholder Analysis

Conduct a stakeholder analysis to gain an overview of all the project‘s stakeholders – including those you do not currently find relevant.

1. List all the stakeholders you can think of. Include both internal and external collaborators as well as those who are not necessarily involved in the project, such as the media, competitors, the municipality, police or other authorities from whom you need permission to realize your project.

2. Ask the following questions about each stakeholder:

  • What interest does the stakeholder have in the project?
  • What are the stakeholder‘s criteria for success for the project?
  • How will the stakeholder contribute?
  • What can the project use the stakeholder for?
  • What can the project do for the stakeholder?
  • What advantages does the project give the stakeholder?
  • What are the project’s downsides for the stakeholder?

3. Make a chart to give you an overview of the stakeholders.

4. Arrange stakeholders in logical sections, for example, based on their interest in the project, their expected actions or their opinions.

Model: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI, p. 34.

Prioritization of stakeholders

Stakeholder analysis usually generates many stakeholders. You cannot target all of them equally; you must select and prioritize.

How to do it:

1. Prioritize stakeholders according to their influence and interest in the project by placing them on the chart below.

2. Focus project, time and energy on stakeholders with the largest influence and interest. Always monitor the other stakeholders. They may end up having influence later in the process.

Model: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI, p. 35.

For more information:

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/stakeholder-analysis/

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

Starting a Business

Sometimes it makes sense to register a business while you are still in school. Knowledge about starting a business is therefore something the art student needs to have access to. As an artist, you are often in the position of creating your own work through your practice. You develop and run your business yourself – you have an independent profession. Therefore, within the framework you set for your business, you must not only be able to perform your professional work and art practice – you have to create financial stability in your personal life as well, since the personal and professional are strongly connected when you are self-employed.

CAKI’s Handbook: Startup is written for the full spectrum of artistic fields and for all types of businesses – from soloists to production companies, from one-person businesses to Ltd’s. It describes the overall questions you need to consider when starting a business, no matter the size. Get the handbook here.

 

Start up wheel

START UP WHEEL

How ready are you to start your business?

Use the model to check how well prepared you are in different areas. The model will help you discover where you need to develop and where you need help from others.

Model: START UP WHEEL.

The model has been developed by Maiken Ingvordsen as part of The Art of Start Up (2018)

SWOT-analysis

Strengths and weaknesses

A good project manager knows the strengths and weaknesses of the project and therefore knows where extra work needs to be done to reach the goal. A SWOT analysis is a useful tool for summarizing strengths and weaknesses in a project.

SWOT is an English acronym which stands for:

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

The first two factors – strengths and weaknesses– concern the internal circumstances of the project. This means the circumstances within the organization that executes the project. The last two factors – opportunities and threats – concern external circumstances. This means the world outside the project. By conducting a SWOT analysis, you can predict problems and create a plan of action for the activities you must put in motion as well, like the ones you must adjust in order to address or avoid conflict.

Typical weaknesses in (artistic) projects

  • An unsatisfactory activity plan: The plan is not cohesive, for example, because it is incomplete or too optimistic regarding the time frame.
  • Finances: Budget is incomplete or missing a good overview of the project‘s finances, coming expenses or billing procedure.
  • Visibility: Communication deprioritized in favour of other practical tasks. This results in insufficient coverage of the project which can have an influence on the project‘s success, finances, etc.

Typical threats to an artistic project

  • Finances: For many artistic projects, being unable to obtain funding to realize the project is a significant threat. Take fundraising tasks seriously, and start early.
  • Permission and rights: Be sure to obtain permission from the municipality, government, police, etc. Also obtain rights to use music, manuscripts, images etc. which others hold the rights to.
  • Opposition: Art can provoke, so it is not surprising that artistic projects sometimes encounter opposition. Be sure to monitor potentially opposing critics and have a plan of how you will – or will not – engage them in dialogue.

 

Prioritization of stakeholders

Conduct a SWOT analysis to become aware of the parts of the project which must be strengthened in order to reach the goal.

1. Fill out the chart. Begin the SWOT analysis with a short brainstorm.

2. Consider if any of the project‘s weaknesses can be turned into strengths by addressing them a certain way.

 

Model: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI, p. 38.

 

Sources: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI

For more information:

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/swot-analysis/

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

SWOT-analysis

Strengths and weaknesses

A good project manager knows the strengths and weaknesses of the project and therefore knows where extra work needs to be done to reach the goal. A SWOT analysis is a useful tool for summarizing strengths and weaknesses in a project.

SWOT is an English acronym which stands for:

Strengths

Weaknesses

Opportunities

Threats

The first two factors – strengths and weaknesses– concern the internal circumstances of the project. This means the circumstances within the organization that executes the project. The last two factors – opportunities and threats – concern external circumstances. This means the world outside the project. By conducting a SWOT analysis, you can predict problems and create a plan of action for the activities you must put in motion as well, like the ones you must adjust in order to address or avoid conflict.

Typical weaknesses in (artistic) projects

  • An unsatisfactory activity plan: The plan is not cohesive, for example, because it is incomplete or too optimistic regarding the time frame.
  • Finances: Budget is incomplete or missing a good overview of the project‘s finances, coming expenses or billing procedure.
  • Visibility: Communication deprioritized in favour of other practical tasks. This results in insufficient coverage of the project which can have an influence on the project‘s success, finances, etc.

Typical threats to an artistic project

  • Finances: For many artistic projects, being unable to obtain funding to realize the project is a significant threat. Take fundraising tasks seriously, and start early.
  • Permission and rights: Be sure to obtain permission from the municipality, government, police, etc. Also obtain rights to use music, manuscripts, images etc. which others hold the rights to.
  • Opposition: Art can provoke, so it is not surprising that artistic projects sometimes encounter opposition. Be sure to monitor potentially opposing critics and have a plan of how you will – or will not – engage them in dialogue.

 

Prioritization of stakeholders

Conduct a SWOT analysis to become aware of the parts of the project which must be strengthened in order to reach the goal.

1. Fill out the chart. Begin the SWOT analysis with a short brainstorm.

2. Consider if any of the project‘s weaknesses can be turned into strengths by addressing them a certain way.

 

Model: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI, p. 38.

 

Sources: Idea development & Project Management, 2021, CAKI

For more information:

https://innovationenglish.sites.ku.dk/metode/swot-analysis/

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

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Target groups, communication
The receiver

In all communication, it is the receiver who holds the power. It is the receiver who can zap, scroll, surf to something else or physically throw your press release in the bin, and if that happens, you fail to reach your real objective: To get an audience to attend your event, to get it mentioned in the media, to obtain the right sponsorships or whatever else your goal may be. When communicating your project, it is therefore important that you tailor your communication to the receiver. Ask yourself the following questions to identify your specific target group:

WHO

Who is my project aimed at?

Children, artists, the industry, students, the general public?

WHY

Why is the project interesting to the receiver?

Why should they focus on this specific project and not something else?

WHAT

What do you want from your receiver?

How do you want to influence your receiver? Do you want to inform, entertain, sell or spark change?

WHERE

Where is the target group physically located? What blogs or media do they read?

What websites do they visit?

What social media do they use? For example, can the target group be found in certain Facebook groups? Do they use specific hashtags?

Identify your target group

There are often multiple target groups for a single project. If you do not have a clear picture of whom you are primarily communicating to, you will often end up addressing a target group that is far too broad. To avoid this, you can divide and prioritise your receivers into primary/secondary and external/internal target groups.

PRIMARY TARGET GROUPS

are those you want your communication to reach above all others. For example, if you are making an animated film for children, your primary target groups will be children and their parents.

SECONDARY TARGET GROUPS

are other receivers who may also find your project relevant. In relation to the animation film, this could be schools and children’s institutions for instance.

EXTERNAL TARGET GROUPS

are the external environments you are trying to reach. This could include the general public, foundations, the press, etc.

INTERNAL TARGET GROUPS

include partners, colleagues, investors and others involved in the project.

“This project is aimed at people of all ages who face issues with time (…)”

The above description of a target group cannot be used in a communication plan; it’s too abstract and vague. The better you can put yourself in your receiver’s shoes, the better your communication will be. Ways in which to get to know your receiver better include:

SIMILAR PROJECTS

Ask your colleagues, friends and other people you know about their experiences with the target group.

CREATE A PERSONA

Describe your receivers. What do they look like? Do they have a specific gender? How old are they? What are they interested in? Be specific and as detailed as possible.

ORGANISATIONS

Contact industry associations, organisations and the like to learn more about how to reach your target group.

FOCUS GROUPS

Get to know your target group’s interests and habits through interviews and focus group discussions.

ASK THEM

Get to know your target group’s interests and habits by asking them, e.g. via a Facebook group, interviews or a questionnaire survey.

THE MINERVA MODEL

Map your target group‘s segment based on the Minerva model. The model relies on generalising, but it can provide insights and ideas that you can use in relation to your choice of communication channels, for example.

Get the handbook.

Sources: PR & Communication, 2020, CAKI

The Astronaut Method (Idea development)

An alternative way to evaluate and improve your idea is to use the Astronaut Method.

In this method, you expose your idea to extreme external effects, forcing you to see both the possibilities and limitations of the idea.

How to:

Ask yourself extreme questions such as:

  • How would the idea look as a worldwide movement?
  • How would the idea look in a miniature version?
  • How would the idea be if it were a massive failure?
  • What is the idea’s opposite?

For more information:

https://caki.dk/project/ideudvikling-projektledelse/?lang=en

Sources: Idea development & Project management, 2021, CAKI

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VAT

Some art students need to register their business with a CVR number. Therefore, you may encounter students who need to know about the tax rules that apply to their particular type of artistic business. The rules for tax registration and payroll tax are part of the knowledge one needs when registering a business. Read more about sales tax, artist tax and payroll tax in CAKI’s Miniguide to VAT here 

Values in the Artistic Business

Generally speaking, there are two types of values which will shape your work in the artistic business. First there are the values you represent as a person. These values influence things like the way you run your artistic business and how you position yourself in work relations. Then there are the values which outlines the broader perspective of your artistic business.  In the book Original — Personal Branding and Visibility, musician, entrepreneur and author Maiken Ingvordsen addresses the question of value in the artistic business very specifically. This article is based on excerpts of the book.

Even though we generally perceive and judge each other based on rather superficial considerations, it is still essential to create links between our actions, values, methods, image, the expectations of others, and the results we deliver in order to build trust and integrity in the artistic business. We can communicate our values to our customers, fans, art collectors stakeholders and collaborators in a variety of ways, for instance through action (or the absence of action), products, marketing, PR, presence on social media, live events, customer service, expression of opinions, etc. By the time an artistic business has become a recognized brand, people have formed expectations of what they are going to get before they get it — this applies to everything from a David Lynch film to an artist talk to an actor’s performance on stage or an album release.

As leader of an artistic business and practice, the values upon which the business is based come from who you are as a person, what you love about your job, and your strengths, qualifications and competencies. It can be a good exercise to write down which values you immediately identify with. Describing your values is a process you must work with over time. Your values may evolve and develop over the course of your life and career, but being able to put your calling into words based on your values as they are right now can be essential to fulfilling your potential to create a sustainable career. Maiken Ingvordsen has developed a series of questions we can answer in writing to find our motivation and thereby describe our values and what we want to contribute to others:

  1. What kind of work do you want to do professionally?
  2. What was your dream job before everything got serious?
  3. What makes you the most happy in your studies and/or professional life?
  4. You create experiences. Looking beyond your products and services, what are the experiences you give other people?
  5. What are your primary and secondary competencies? Primary competencies can be things like playing the piano and composing music while secondary competencies can include writing texts for others, practical tasks and project management.
  6. Acknowledgement — has someone thanked you for a service, experience, or product you provided, and what specifically did they mention?
  7. Yourself from outside: Ask three people — one professional relation, one personal friend and one family member — to describe you. What do they see as your primary abilities and talents — professionally and personally? Give yourself time to fully process their answers.

In her book, Maiken Ingvordsen also covers nine principles of personal branding. This article on value clarification is a summary of the chapters “Values and Expectations” (pp. 29-32) and “Your Calling” (pp. 52-54).

Maiken Ingvordsen: Original — Personal Branding og Synlighed, Lindhart and Ringhof, 2015.(only in Danish).

Value and relevance

Professor John Holden provides us with one perspective on how we value art and culture. Holden challenges the old culture model in which one spoke of elite or popular culture and high or low culture as opposite entities. Instead, he divides culture into state-funded culture, commercial culture, and what he calls homemade culture. Rather than seeing these as separate spheres, Holden believes they are woven together and tightly bound despite their differences.

Holden finds it crucially significant that the debate about quality has changed. Art has previously been naturally superior to popular culture, but now quality is discussed in every niche. According to Holden, artists now move between the funded, commercial and homemade sectors more freely than ever before.  For example, publicly funded orchestras now make commercial recordings to be sold at market conditions and boost their brands with YouTube videos designed to go viral, like the video in which orchestra members eat chili peppers while playing their instruments.

Both large and small producers of culture in Denmark often use a business model which involves not only fulfilling basic grant requirements of artistic relevance to society and fundraising for large portions of content, but also handling commercial sales which requires branding and visibility to consumers. In other words, there are many different streams of money flowing into the artistic business or the cultural institution. Therefore, the ability to ensure quality and relevance in an artistic business from an outside world-oriented perspective — which includes public as well as commercial culture — is now more valuable than ever.

References:

John Holden: “How we value arts and culture”. In the video, John Holden presents his perspective on the value of the creative and cultural worker in relation to society’s economy, interpersonal relations and individual identity. See the video here.

John Holden: “How we value arts and culture”. Article published in Asia Pacific Journal of Arts and Cultural Management, 2009. Get the article here.

Arts Council England – New 10-Years Strategy – from Great Art & Culture for Everyone to Let’s Create: https:// www.artscouncil.org.uk

Volunteering

Many students and professionals work with volunteers in their projects. Find inspiration in volunteer champion Esben Danielsen’s tips on how to maintain engagement in the volunteers on a project. Read more in CAKI’s Miniguide on working with volunteers in your projects here.

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Æ – Ø – Å                                                                                                                              

The 7P Model: The Artist’s Narrative

(See also the section on the Artistic Narrative elsewhere in the wiki)

As a teacher, the 7P Model can be applied as a tool for trying out the student’s own stories or to have a conversation about personal stories. The 7P Model can create a perspective on how an artist can work actively with storytelling and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

The personal story is central for many artists. Some artists use their own lives in the creation of art, with clear impressions of it in the artistic process and the finished product. For others, the personal story is more of a background. We can work actively with stories in the arts business, thus also with how the artist’s personal story influences the way we perceive art. Narrative at the same time affects the ways an artist creates relationships in their own arts business, including in the communications and sales contexts.

In the discourse of social constructivism, stories are termed narratives. The 7P Model is a model used in social constructivism, where it is used to offer a language for storytelling. The model can create a perspective on how we can actively work with storytelling and thereby how we can communicate with the world around us.

According to M. Schnoor, narrative has a series of characteristics that make up the 7 Ps.

 

  1. Personal perspective: A narrative always has a narrator — it is always someone’s story. Psychologist Jerome Bruner calls this a story’s perspectivism. (Bruner, 1999)
  2. Public: A narrative always has one or several listeners. This is where the narrative’s relational dimension resides. The narrative is shaped by the relation between narrator and public or audience — someone who listens.
  3. Plot: A narrative is made up of a series of single events and actions which are linked together in a particular order in adherence with a plot. A narrative’s plot reveals what the story is about and can also be called “the red thread.”
  4. Punctuation: Narratives allow us to organize our experiences in chronological order. All narratives have a beginning (past), middle (present) and an end (future). It is not always clear which event makes up each of these components of the narrative. We create meaning in our experiences by selecting certain events over others, so something is pulled to the foreground instead of something else. Part of this selection process is what communication theorist Barnett Pearce calls punctuation — determining where the narrative begins and ends.
  5. Personae: A narrative always contains a group of characters who act in relation to each other. These are the personae. Some actors play leading roles while others play supporting ones. Once a character or action is determined by the story’s narrator, it will likely maintain its identity or function throughout the story. An interesting characteristic of narratives is, however, that they create connections between the exceptional and the ordinary (Bruner, 1999). In other words, narratives contribute to creating meaning in actions and behaviors that deviate from the predictable.
  6. Positioning: A story, because of its plot and the discourse from which the story springs, makes available certain positions. These positions help form both identity and room for possible actions.
  7. Point: A story always has a moral or point. The point in a story is the lesson the story wants to bring forward to the audience. The question is, how does one form a story so that others will be likely to want to listen and take an interest in the moral message?7P model:

Sources:

Text based on Narrative Organizational Development, 2009, Michala Schnoor

Meaning in Action, 1999, Jerome Bruner.

ENTRE DEBAT podcasts

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COMING EVENTS

See the school's joint programme here.

ENTRE DEBAT LIVE 2 - 'Samfundsudviklende kunstnerskaber', taking place the 24/9-2021 at 10-12 am.

ENTRE SEMINAR 2 - 'At undre sig: Entreprenørskab som kunstnerisk udviklingspraksis', taking place the 4/10-2021 at 10-12 am.

ENTRE DEBAT LIVE 3 - 'Kunstnerskaber i omverdensrelationer', taking place the 8/10-2021 at 10-12 am.

MASTERCLASS on Knowledge transfer w. Georg Russegger, taking place the 8/10-2021 at 13-16 pm.

ENTRE SYMPOSIUM 4 - KUNSTNERSKABER I PARTNERSKABER', taking place the 26/11-2021 at 10-16 pm.

ENTRE CASES

I casesamling er eksempler på, hvordan lærere, studerende og dimittender på kunstskolerne udfolder undervisning og kunstnerisk praksis på måder, der berører entreprenørskab som et vidensfelt i kunstuddannelserne. Se samlingen her

ENTRE INCUBATOR

As a part of the ENTRE initiative, CAKI is in the process of exploring the possibilities of creating an incubation environment at the art schools. The initiative is based on existing knowledge across educations based on e.g. entrepreneurship and artistic development activities and focuses on creating new development opportunities for students, lecturers and researchers.

The development of the incubator initiative has started in 2021.

Read CAKI's proposal for the development of an incubation environment for the art schools here (in Danish)

Steering group for entrepreneurship (ENTRE)
  • The Royal Academy of Music: Keld Hosbond
  • The Royal Danish Academy of Music: Jonas Bille
  • The National Film School of Denmark: Kristine Ploug
  • The Danish National School of Performing Arts: Rikke Lund Heinsen
  • Rhythmic Music Conservatory: Christian Taagehøj
  • The Danish National Academy of Music: Christina Holm Dahl
  • The Academy of Fine Arts: Emil Leth Meilvang
  • CAKI: Pernille Skov

You can contact ENTRE by writing pernille@caki.dk